Grammar



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 LIÇÃO 35 – FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

(Versão em Português)

 

USO:

         Descreve uma ação que terá acontecido.

 

FORMAÇÃO:

        

WII + HAVE + PARTICÍPIO PASSADO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL

 

         Ex.: By the year, 2000, the Earth will have seen many changes.

                 The taxi will have arrived, by the time we get there.

 

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ SOBRE ORACÕES CONDICIONAIS

 

 

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 LESSON 35 - FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

(English version)

 

USE:

Describes an action that has happened.

 

TRAINING:

 

WII + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE MAIN VERB

 

         Ex.: By the year, 2000, the Earth will have seen many changes.

                 The taxi will have arrived, by the time we get there.

 

 

 

NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON conditional clauses

 

 

 

 

 

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 17:

"Never hit a door, you may want to go back!"

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 WARNING

English

The lessons were available in 4 languages: Portuguese, English, Spanisn and French, in that order. Good studies.

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 LIÇÃO 36 – ORAÇÕES CONDICIONAIS

(Versão em Português)

 

         As orações com IF são orações condicionais. Elas são formadas pela oração principal (MAIN CLAUSE) + a oração subordinada condicional (aquela que possui o IF).

         Podemos agrupar as orações que contêm IF em três classes:

1)    FUTURO POSSÍVEL (CONDICIONAL PROVÁVEL)

 

Forma:

IF      SIMPLE PRESENT    +       SIMPLE FUTURE

         (oração subordinada)             (oração principal)

         Ex.: If you study hard, you will learn English.

                 (você conseguirá…!)

 

         Ou ainda,

IF SIMPLE PRESENT + IMPERATIVE

Ou

IF SIMPLE PRESENT + CAN, MAY, MUST + verbo no infinitive sem o TO

 

2)    PRESENTE IRREAL (CONDIÇÃO IMPROVÁVEL)

 

Forma:

IF      PAST SUBJUNCTIVE         +       CONDITIONAL (WOULD)

                   (oração subordinada)             (oração principal)

         Ex.: If you studied hard, you would learn English.

                (você ainda tem chances…!)

 

FIQUE LIGADO:

. O Past Subjtnctive de “TO BE” é “WERE” para todas as pessoas.

- If I were you, I would go.

- If he were you, he could buy a new car.

. Para os outros verbos, o PAST SUBJUNCTIVE é igual ao SIMPLE PAST.

 

3)    PASSADO IRREAL (CONDIÇÃO IMPOSSÍVEL)

 

Forma:

IF PAST PERFECT                  +       CONDITIONAL PERFECT (WOULD HAVE)

         (oração subordinada)             (oração principal)

     Ex.: If you had studied hard, you would have learned English.

            (agora, já era…!)

 

Atenção!

a)     A ordem das orações não altera o sentido!

b)    Além da conjunção condicional IF, podemos usar outras conjunções condicionais, por exemplo, UNLESS e WHETHER.

c)     Na oração principal, “WOULD” é normalmente usado, mas dependendo do sentido da frase, “COULD” e “MIGHT” podem substituí-lo.

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ SOBRE MODAL VERBS

 

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 LESSON 36 - CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

(English version)

 

The sentences with IF are conditional clauses. They are formed by the main clause + subordinate clause conditional (one that has the IF).

We can group the prayers that contain IF in three classes:

1) POSSIBLE FUTURE (POSSIBLE CONDITIONAL)

 

form:

IF SIMPLE PRESENT    +       SIMPLE FUTURE

     (subordinate clause)                (main clause)

     Ex.: If you study hard, you will learn English.

    

     Or,

IF SIMPLE PRESENT + IMPERATIVE

Or

IF SIMPLE PRESENT + CAN, MAY, MUST + verb in the infinitive without TO

 

2) PRESENT UNREAL (IMPROBABLE CONDITION )

 

form:

IF          PAST SUBJUNCTIVE         +       CONDITIONAL (WOULD)

               (subordinate clause)               (main clause)

     Ex.: If you studied hard, you would learn English.

    

STAY ON:

. The Past Subjtnctive of “TO BE” is “WERE” for all people.

- If I were you, I would go.

- If he were you, he could buy a new car.

. For the others verbs, the PAST SUBJUNCTIVE is equal to SIMPLE PAST.

 

3) UNREAL PAST (IMPOSSIBLE CONDITION)

 

 Form:

IF PAST PERFECT                  +       CONDITIONAL PERFECT (WOULD HAVE)

 (subordinate clause)                            (main clause)

     Ex.: If you had studied hard, you would have learned English.

    

Attention!

a) The order of prayer does not change the meaning!

b) In conjunction of conditional IF, we can use other conditional conjunctions, eg, UNLESS and WHETHER.

c)  In the main clause, “WOULD” is normally used, but depending on the meaning of the phrase, “COULD” and “MIGHT” can replace him.

 

 

NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON MODAL VERBS

 

 

 

 

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 18:

"It's never as easy as getting lost when judges know the way."

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pauloviana2012

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 WARNING

English

The lessons were available in 4 languages: Portuguese, English, Spanisn and French, in that order. Good studies.

pauloviana2012

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 LIÇÃO 37 – MODAL VERBS

(Versão em Português)

 

MODAL VERBS

         São verbos auxiliares que colocados junto aos verbos principais nos dão ideia de desejo, intenção, probabilidade, conselho, capacidade, pedido, proibição, etc.

Observe:

Habilidade:                  I can swin fast.

                            Eu posso nadar rápido.

Dever:                 I must swin fast.

(obrigação)          Eu devo nadir rápido.

Condição:           I would swim fast.

                            Eu poderia nadar rápido.

Licença:              May I swim fast

                            Posso nadar rápido?

 

Quais são os modals?

PRESENTE

PASSADO

CAN

COULD

MAY

MIGHT

WILL

WOULD

SHALL

SHOULD

MUST

HAD TO / OUGHT TO

 

         Além destes, encontramos expressões que agem como modals: had better, would rather, need.

 

ATENÇÃO:

·        Os modals possuem uma única forma para todas as pessoas.

I can play tennis.

                   He can play tennis.

·        Não são precedidos de “to”.

·        A única exceção é ought to.

·        Uso dos principias modals:

 

1.     Para expressar: habilidade, aptidão, capacidade atual.

Use: CAN (be able to)

                (poder)

Exemplos: He can´t read Germam well.

                         Can you drive a car?

 

2.     Para expressar: habilidade, aptidão, capacidade no passado.

Use: COULD

         (poder)

Exemplos: He could play de piano when he  was 8.

                  I could dance all night five years ago.

 

3.     Para expressar: permissão, autorização, licença formal.

Use: MAY, MIGHT (be allowed to)

         (poder)

Exemplos: May I smoke in your class?

                  I might leave a little earlier.

 

4.     Para expressar: permissão, autorização, licença informal.

Use: CAN, COULD

         (poder)

Exemplos: Can I smoke in your class?

                  You can´t park over here.

 

5.     Para expressar: obrigação, dever, necessidade.

Use: MUST, HAVE TO, HAD TO

         (dever, ter de)

Exemplos: One must eat to live.

                  You must not walk on the grass.

 

6.     Para expressar: pedido, solicitação delicada.

Use: WOULD, COULD, WILL

         (poderia)

Exemplo: Will you carry this for me?

                Would you help me, please?

 

7.     Para expressar: ação futura.

Use: WILL, SHALL

         (sinais do futuro)

         Exemplos: I shall pass this course.

                            My uncle won´t be there tonight.

 

8.     Para expressar: possibilidade, poder, probabilidade.

Use: CAN, MAY, COULD, MIGHT

         (poder)

Exemplos: It might rain tonight, we never know.

                  The plans could be ruined without you.

 

9.     Para expressar: conveniência, desejo não forçado, conselho, dever, obrigação.

Use: SHOULD, OUGHT TO

         (seria bom que)

Exemplos: He should stay.

                  You ought to work harder.

Ø OUGTH TO é mais formal.

 

10.                        Para expressar: suposição.

Use: MUST, MAY, MIGHT

         (deve, pode ser)

Exemplos: He must be dead by now.

                  He may have left for Rio by now. (might)

 

Preste Atenção!

·        Algumas vezes os “modals” não se referem a um tempo específico. Dependerão da situação na qual estiverem inseridos.

 

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ SOBRE WISH

 

 

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

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 LESSON 37 – MODAL VERBS

(Version in English)

 

 

MODAL VERBS

         They are auxiliary verbs that placed beside the main verbs give us idea of wish, intention, probability, council, capacity, request, prohibition, etc. Observe:

Skill:          I can swin fast.

                            .

Have to:     I must swin fast.

(Obligation)                 

Condition: I would swim fast.

 Licence:    May I swim fast

 

Which are the modals?

PRESENT

PAST

CAN

COULD

MAY

MIGHT

WILL

WOULD

SHALL

SHOULD

MUST

HAD TO / OUGHT TO

 

         In addition to these, find expressions that act like modals: had better, would rather, need.

 

ATTENTION:

•        The modals possess an only form for all the people. I can play tennis. I have can play tennis. • they are not preceded of  “to”.

•        The only exception is ought to.

 •       Use of the main modals:

 

1.      To express: skill, aptitude, current capacity.

Use: CAN (be able to)

        Examples: He can´t read Germam well.

                          Can you drive a car?

 

2.      To express: skill, aptitude, capacity in the past.

Use: COULD

Examples: He could play de piano when he  was 8.

                          I could dance all night five years ago.

 

3.      To express: permission, permission, formal licence.

Use: MAY, MIGHT (be allowed to)

Examples: May I smoke in your class?

                            I might leave a little earlier.

 

4.      To express: permission, permission, informal licence.

Use: CAN, COULD

Examples: Can I smoke in your class?

                            You can´t park over here.

 

5.      To express: obligation, have to, need.

Use: MUST, HAVE TO, HAD TO

         Examples: One must eat to live.

                           You must not walk on the grass.

 

6.      To express: request, delicate application.

Use: WOULD, COULD, WILL

Example: Will you carry this for me?

                           Would you help me, please?

 

7.      To express: future action.

Use: WILL, SHALL

         Examples: I shall pass this course.

                            My uncle won´t be there tonight.

 

8.      To express: possibility, can, probability.

Use: CAN, MAY, COULD, MIGHT

Examples: It might rain tonight, we never know.

                           The plans could be ruined without you.

 

9.      To express: suitability, wish no forced, council, have to, obligation.

Use: SHOULD, OUGHT TO

Examples: He should stay.

                           You ought to work harder.

Ø OUGTH TO It is more formal.

 

10.    To express: supposition.

 Use: MUST, MAY, MIGHT

           Examples: He must be dead by now.

                             He may have left for Rio by now. (might)

 

Pay Attention!

•        Sometimes the “modals” they do not refer to a specific time. They will depend on the situation in which they are inserted.

 

The NEXT LESSON will BE ON WISH