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pauloviana2012

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 LIÇÃO 02 – GUIA DE CONVERSAÇÃO

“EM VIAGEM DE CARRO”

(Versão em Português)

 

·        Travelling

·        Em viagem

 

·        By car

·        De carro

 

·        Which is the nearest garage?

·        Onde é a garagem mais próxima?

 

·        May I leave my car here for … days?

·        Posso deixar o carro aqui por ... dias?

 

·        This is an attendant parking lot.

·        Este é um estacionamento com vigia.

 

·        This is an un attendant parking lot.

·        Este é um estacionamento sem vigia.

 

·        How much do you charge for an hour?

·        Qual é o preço por hora?

 

·        Where can I hire a car?

·        Onde posso alugar um carro?

 

·        I need a car for … days.

·        Preciso de um carro por ... dias.

 

·        How much do you charge for one day?

·        Qual é o preço por dia?

 

·        Please, fill my tank with gas normal.

·        Por favor, encha o tanque com gasolina comum.

 

·        Please, fill my tank with gas premium.

·        Por favor, encha o tanque com gasolina especial.

 

·        Could you please check the level of the water, of the oil and the pressure of the tyres?

·        Pode verificar o nível da água, do óleo e a pressão dos pneus?

 

·        How do I get to the road for…?

·        Onde fica a estrada para...?

 

·        Is it a very narrow road?

·        A estrada é muito estreita?

 

·        Is there a lot of traffic?

·        Tem muito tráfego?

 

·        Is the entrance to the highway for … very far?

·        Fica longe a entrada da autoestrada para ...?

 

·        Is it a turnpike?

·        Ela tem cobrança de pedágio?

 

·        Does one pay on the way in or on the way out?

·        O pagamento é feito na ida ou na volta?

 

·        How far is the gas station?

·        A que distância fica o posto de gasolina?

 

·        How far is it to the nearest exit?

·        A que distância fica a saída mais próxima?

 

·        I am looking for a repair shop.

·        Estou procurando uma oficina.

 

·        My car won’t start. Can you have a look at it?

·        Meu carro não quer pegar. O senhor pode dar uma olhada?

 

·        Is the trouble serious?

·        O problema é sério?

 

·        How long will it take?

·        Quanto tempo vai demorar?

 

·        I’ll need the car tomorrow.

·        Preciso do carro para amanhã.

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ SOBRE DISCURSO DIRETO E INDIRETO

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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LESSON 01 – GUIDE OF CONVERSATION “IN TRIP OF CAR”

(Version in English)

 

 

 

 

•        Travelling

 

•        By car

        

•        Which is the nearest garage?

 

•        May I leave my car here for … days?

        

•        This is an attendant parking lot.

 

•        This is an un attendant parking lot.

 

•        How much do you charge for an hour?

 

•        Where can I hire a car?

 

•        I need a car for … days.

 

•        How much do you charge for one day?

 

•        Please, fill my tank with gas normal.

 

•        Please, fill my tank with gas premium.

 

•        Could you please check the level of the water, of the oil and the pressure of the tyres?

 

•        How do I get to the road for…?

 

•        Is it a very narrow road?

 

•        Is there a lot of traffic?

 

•        Is the entrance to the highway for … very far?

 

•        Is it a turnpike?

 

•        Does one pay on the way in or on the way out?

 

•        How far is the gas station?

 

•        How far is it to the nearest exit?

 

•        I am looking for a repair shop.

 

•        My car won’t start. Can you have a look at it?

 

•        Is the trouble serious?

 

•        How long will it take?

 

•        I’ll need the car tomorrow.

 

 

 

 

The NEXT LESSON will BE ON DIRECT And INDIRECT SPEECH

 

 

 

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 24:

"Life can only be understood by looking backward, but can only be lived by looking forward to it!"

< Soren Kierkegaard >

pauloviana2012

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 WARNING

English

The lessons were available in 4 languages: Portuguese, English, Spanisn and French, in that order. Good studies.

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

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 LIÇÃO 03 – DISCURSO DIRETO E INDIRETO

(Versão em Português)

 

Se eu falar: “Eu quero ler um livro”,

Eu disse que queria ler um livro.

 

         No exemplo acima, a frase passou do discurso direto para o discurso indireto, fazendo-se alguma modificação. A diferença faz-se principalmente no tempo verbal.

         Então:

         Iwant to read a book.

         I said that I wanted to read a book.

 

         No discurso indireto teremos um período composto por uma oração principal e uma oração subordinada.

         Na oração principal aparecerá verbos do tipo:

         - SAY;

         - TELL;

         - ASK.

 

         A oração subordinada será introduzida por um:

         - THAT;

         - IF / WHETHER; ou

         - INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN (WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, WHICH)

 

PRESTE ATENÇÃO!

-         Tell e ask são geralmente seguidos por um nome ou pronome.

-         SAY pode ser seguido ou não por um nome ou pronome (no caso da opção pelo pronome, usar a preposição “TO”).

-         O conectivo That pode ser omitido,

 

As modificações verbais são:

TENSE

 

 

 

BECOMES

TENSE

SIMPLE PRESENT

SIMPLE PAST

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PAST CONTINUOUS

PRESENT PERFECT

PAST PERFECT

SIMPLE PAST

PAST PERFECT

SIMPLE FUTURE

CONDITIONAL (would)

CONDITIONAL

PERFECT CONDITIONAL

IMPERATIVE

INFINITIVE

 

Ø O discurso indiretoanda um passo para trás” (para o tempo passado).

 

Modificações nos pronomes:

I, we           - he (she), they

My, our      - his (her), their

 

Outras mudanças:

this

That

these

Those

here

There

now

Then

ago

Before

today

That day

tomorrow

The next day, the following day

yesterday

The previous day, the day before

Last night

The night before

Next week

The following week

 

Exemplos:

1.     They said: “We will go no matter what happens”.

They said that they would go no matter what happened.

 

2.     Last month Peter said, “Mary, you are going to receive an invitation.

Last month Peter told Mary that she was going to receive an invitation.

 

3.     Henry said, “Can you save a lot of money?”

Henry asked me if (whether) I could save a lot of money.

 

4.     He said, “Don’t smoke in the class”.

He told us not to smoke in the class.

 

5.     She said, “Ive just hurt myself”

She said that she had just hurt herself.

 

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ SOBRE REVISÃO DE ARTIGOS DEFINIDOS

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 LESSON 03 – DIRECT And INDIRECT SPEECH

(Version in English)

 

If I speak: “I want to read a book”,

I said that I wanted to read a book.

 

         In the above example, the phrase went from direct speech to indirect speech, by making some modification.

The difference is mainly in verbal time.

then:

         Iwant to read a book.

         I said that I wanted to read a book.

 

         In indirect speech we will have a period consisting of a main clause and a subordinate clause.

Appears in the main clause verbs like:

         - SAY;

         - TELL;

         - ASK.

 

         The subordinate clause is introduced by:

         - THAT;

         - IF / WHETHER; or

         - INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN (WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, WHICH)

 

PAY ATTENTION!

-        Tell and ask are usually followed by a noun or pronoun.

-        Say can be followed or not by a noun or pronoun (in the case of the option by the pronoun, the preposition use “TO”).

-        The connective That can be omitted,

 

The verbal changes are:

TENSE

 

 

 

BECOMES

TENSE

SIMPLE PRESENT

SIMPLE PAST

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PAST CONTINUOUS

PRESENT PERFECT

PAST PERFECT

SIMPLE PAST

PAST PERFECT

SIMPLE FUTURE

CONDITIONAL (would)

CONDITIONAL

PERFECT CONDITIONAL

IMPERATIVE

INFINITIVE

 

      The indirect speech "goes one step back" (for the last time).

 

Changes in pronouns:

I, we           - he (she), they

My, our      - his (her), their

 

Other changes:

this

That

these

Those

here

There

now

Then

ago

Before

today

That day

tomorrow

The next day, the following day

yesterday

The previous day, the day before

Last night

The night before

Next week

The following week

 

Examples:

1.      They said: “We will go no matter what happens”.

They said that they would go no matter what happened.

 

2.      Last month Peter said, “Mary, you are going to receive an invitation.

Last month Peter told Mary that she was going to receive an invitation.

 

3.      Henry said, “Can you save a lot of money?”

Henry asked me if (whether) I could save a lot of money.

 

4.      He said, “Don’t smoke in the class”.

He told us not to smoke in the class.

 

5.      She said, “I’ve just hurt myself”

She said that she had just hurt herself.

 

 

 

THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON REVIEW OF DEFINED ARTICLES

 

 

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 25:

"The virtue of a person is measured by actions not exceptional, but the daily habits!"

 

< Blaise Pascal >

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 WARNING

English

The lessons were available in 4 languages: Portuguese, English, Spanisn and French, in that order. Good studies.

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 LIÇÃO 04 – ARTIGOS DEFINIDOS

(versão em Português)

 

 

ARTIGOS

Artigo é a classe de palavras que se antepõe ao Substantivo para definir, limitar ou modificar seu uso. Os artigos dividem-se em Definido e Indefinido.

 

O Artigo Definido (The)

O Artigo Definido The é usado antes de um substantivo já conhecido pelo ouvinte ou leitor. Significa O, A, OS, AS, mas, em Inglês, é invariável em gênero e número, ao contrário do que acontece no Português. Exemplos:

The boy - O menino

The boys - Os meninos

The girl - A menina

The girls - As meninas

 

Quando usar o Artigo Definido

Utiliza-se o The diante de:

1. Substantivos mencionados anteriormente,  já definidos pelo locutor:

He wrote some letters and postcards. The letters were to his girlfriend.

Ele escreveu algumas cartas e cartões-postais. As cartas eram para sua namorada.

 

Mary bought a funny dress. The dress is full of small animals and big flowers.

Mary comprou um vestido engraçado. O vestido é cheio de animaizinhos e flores enormes.

 

2. Substantivos únicos em sua espécie:

The Sun (o sol), the Moon (a lua), the sky (o céu), the planet Earth (o planeta Terra), the universe (o universo), etc.

 

3. Nomes Geográficos de rios, mares, canais, oceanos, pólos, desertos, golfos, grupos de ilhas e cadeias de montanhas:

The Amazonas River, The Pacif Ocean, The English Channel (O Canal da Mancha), The North Pole, The Sahara, The Gulf of Mexico, The Bahamas, The Alps, etc.

 

4. Adjetivos usados como substantivos no plural:

The poor (os pobres), The powerful (os poderosos), The good (os bons), The bad (os maus)

Observação: Como podemos proceder, então, para os substantivos no singular? Como dizer, por exemplo, "o poderoso" ou "a pobre"? Veja:

The powerful man helped the poor woman.

O poderoso ajudou a pobre.

Note que especificamos a quem o adjetivo está se referindo (adjetivo + substantivo)

 

5. Nomes compostos de países:

The United Kingdom (o Reino Unido)

The United States (os Estados Unidos)

The United Arab Emirates (os Emirados Árabes Unidos)

The Dominican Republic (a República Dominicana)

 

6. Com nomes próprios para indicar a família toda ou especificar a pessoa sobre a qual se fala (mas nunca se usa artigo antes de nomes próprios e de possessivos):

The Martins went to the restaurant they like.

Os Martin foram ao restaurante que gostam.

 

The Kennedys are a famous family.

Os Kennedy são uma família famosa.

 

The John I'm talking about is Jane's brother.

O John de quem estou falando é o irmão da Jane.

 

Peter is my Friend. (e não "The Peter is my friend")

O Peter é meu amigo.

 

We are selling our house. (e não "We are selling the our house")

Estamos vendendo (a) nossa casa.

 

7. Antes de nomes de instrumentos musicais e ritmos/danças:

John plays the piano very well.

John toca piano muito bem.

 

That girl who is playing the clarinet is Martha's sister.

Aquela garota que está tocando clarinete é irmã da Martha.

 

Mary likes the saxophone.

Mary gosta de saxofone.

 

Valéria dances the samba graciously.

Valéria dança samba graciosamente.

 

Juan dances the tango like a professional.

Juan dança tango como um profissional.

 

 8. Com nomes de jornais:

The Economist, The New York Times, The Washington Post

 

9. Com a maioria dos nomes de edifícios:

The Capitol, The Empire States, The Louvre, The Kremlin, The Taj Mahal, The Vatican

Exceções: Buckingham Palace e todos os edifícios com a palavra hall (Carnegie Hall, Lilly Hall).

                       

10. Diante de nomes de cinemas, teatros, hotéis, restaurantes, clubes, museus, bibliotecas e galerias de arte:

There's a foreign film festival at the Paramount.

Há um festival de filmes estrangeiros no Paramount.

 

I saw Barbra Streisand at the Palladium in 1975.

Eu vi Barbra Streisand no Palladium em 1975.

 

They have a reservation at the Plaza for next week.

Eles têm uma reserva no Plaza para a semana que vem.

 

We are going to have dinner at the Chinese Palace.

Nós vamos jantar no Chinese Palace.

 

They plan to go dancing at the Apollo.

Eles planejam ir dançar no Apollo.

 

You must visit the British Museum.

Você precisa visitar o Museu Britânico.

 

The lecture at the Boston Library will start at seven o'clock.

A palestra na Boston Library começará às sete horas.

 

11. Com os superlativos:

Tony is the tallest guy in our group.

Tony é o cara mais alto do nosso grupo.  

 

Hellen is the best teacher I've ever had.

A Hellen é a melhor professora que eu já tive.

 

12. Com o grau comparativo, para indicar que duas coisas aumentam ou diminuem na mesma proporção:

The more she gets, the more she wants.

Quanto mais ela consegue, mais ela quer.

 

The more I study philosophy, the less I understand it.    

Quanto mais eu estudo filosofia, menos eu entendo.

 

13. Com numerais ordinais indicando ênfase numérica:

This is the first time she comes to Brazil.

Esta é a primeira vez que ela vem ao Brasil.

 

Quando NÃO usar o Artigo Definido

Omite-se o The quando temos:

1. Nomes de cidades, estados, ilhas, países, continentes:

Brazil is a very large country.

O Brasil é um país muito extenso.

 

Roraima is the Brazil's Northernmost state.

Roraima é o estado mais ao norte do Brasil.

 

Hawaii is in Oceania.

O Havaí situa-se na Oceania.

 

Asia is bigger than Europe.

A Ásia é maior que a Europa.

 

Rio is a beautiful city.

O Rio é uma cidade linda.

 

They will stay in Las Vegas for a while.

Eles passarão um tempo em Las Vegas.

 

2. Nomes próprios e pronomes possessivos:

Mary's best friend is Bob.

O melhor amigo da Mary é o Bob.

 

I think our gold was stolen. (E não "I think the our gold was stolen")

Acredito que o nosso ouro foi roubado.

 

3. Substantivos no plural utilizados em sentido genérico:

People all over the world want to be happy.

As pessoas em todos os cantos do mundo querem ser felizes.

 

Children like toys.

As crianças gostam de brinquedos.

 

Man is mortal.

O homem é mortal.

 

Brazilians love soccer.

Os brasileiros adoram futebol.

 

Importante:

Os substantivos contáveis (countable nouns) são aqueles que admitem plural, ou seja, a maioria.

Ex: cat (gato), computer (computador), hot dog (cachorro-quente).

Os substantivos incontáveis (uncountable nouns) são os que, em inglês (às vezes, também, em português), não admitem plural.

Exemplos: gold (ouro), information (informação), money (dinheiro), advice (conselho). Quando o substantivo é contável e está sendo usado em sentido genérico no singular, emprega-se o artigo:

The cat is a domestic animal.

O gato é um animal doméstico.

 

Mas: Cats are domestic animals.

Os gatos são animais domésticos.

 

The computer is a wonder of technology.

O computador é uma maravilha da tecnologia.

 

Mas: Computers are wonders of technology.

Os computadores são maravilhas da tecnologia.

 

Note que o artigo é omitido somente no plural, mas no singular, não!

 

4. Substantivos abstratos ou os que indicam material:

We all need some little happiness.

Todos nós precisamos de um pouquinho de felicidade.

 

Most people fear death.

A maioria das pessoas tem medo da morte.

 

Diamond is a girl's best friend.

O diamante é o melhor amigo da mulher.

 

Silk is much used in summer.

A seda é bastante usada no verão.

 

Importante: Quando esses substantivos são especificados, o artigo é sempre usado:

The happiness she feels seems to be artificial.

A felicidade que ela sente parece ser artificial.

 

The death of the milkman is still a mystery.

A morte do leiteiro ainda é um mistério.

 

The diamond Paul gave her is beautiful.

O diamante que Paul lhe deu é lindo.

 

The silk my aunt brought from China is expensive.

A seda que minha tia trouxe da China é cara.

 

5. Substantivos que denotam esportes, ciências, disciplinas acadêmicas, cores, refeições, estações do ano, meses e dias da semana:

Tennis is very popular in Australia.

O tênis é muito popular na Austrália.

 

Biology is an important science.

A Biologia é uma ciência importante.

 

Chemistry and Physics are required for that course.

Química e física são exigidas para aquele curso.

 

Yellow is Steve's favorite color.

O amarelo é a cor favorita de Steve.

 

I'm going to the bank after lunch.

Vou ao banco depois do almoço.

 

Dinner will be served at eight.

O jantar será servido às oito.

 

 

Could you please send me the books on Monday?

Você poderia, por gentileza, me enviar os livros na segunda-feira?

 

Mas: The blue of her eyes is stunning.

O azul dos olhos dela é estonteante.

                                                          

The lunch my grandma offered us was delicious.

O almoço que minha vó nos ofereceu estava delicioso.

 

The winter we spent in London was unforgettable.

O inverno que passamos em Londres foi inesquecível.

 

Observe que os substantivos destacados nesse último grupo estão empregados em sentido específico.

 

6. Títulos ou designações de cargos, apesar de levarem o artigo, como em Português, devem ser usados sem artigo quando acompanhados de nome próprio:

The president came to our city. O presidente veio à nossa cidade.

Mas: President Kennedy was murdered. O presidente Kennedy foi assassinado.

 

The Queen of England lives in London. A rainha da Inglaterra mora em Londres.

Mas: Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in 1953. A Rainha Elizabeth II foi coroada em 1953.

 

The doctor is visiting his patients. O médico está visitando seus pacientes.

Mas: Doctor Varella is visiting his patients. O doutor Varella está visitando seus pacientes.

 

The captain spoke to the soldiers. O capitão falou aos soldados.

Mas: Captain Smith spoke to the soldiers. O capitão Smith falou ao soldados.

 

7. Certos substantivos como bed, church, court, hospital, prison, college, school, market, home, society e work, quando usados para a finalidade à qual se destinam normalmente:

Our children go to bed at nine.

Nossos filhos vão para a cama às nove.

 

We go to church every Sunday to attend the Mass.

Nós vamos à igreja todos os domingos para participar da Missa.

  

He'll send them all to court.

Ele vai levá-los todos para os tribunais.

 

Tony is very sick. He is still in hospital.

Tony está muito doente. Ele ainda está no hospital.

 

The thieves were sent to prison.

Os ladrões foram mandados para a prisão.

 

Frank attends college in Florida.

Frank freqüenta uma faculdade na Flórida.      

 

They don't go to market on Saturdays because it's the crowdest day.

Eles não vão ao mercado aos sábados porque é o dia mais lotado.

 

The students went home earlier.

Os estudantes foram para casa mais cedo.

 

My wife goes to work on foot.

Minha esposa vai para o trabalho a pé.

 

8. Antes das palavras next e last, em expressões temporais:

         We all plan to fly to Europe next semester.

Nós todos planejamos viajar para a Europa no semestre que vem.

                                                                   

Last week, Melanie didn't come to school because she was sick.

Na semana passada, Melanie não veio à escola porque estava doente.

 

9. Diante de palavras que se referem a idiomas:

They want to speak English fluently.

Eles querem falar Inglês fluentemente.

French and Rumanian are also romance languages.

O francês e o romeno também são línguas neolatinas.

                                                       

Chinese is a very difficult language.

O Chinês é uma língua muito difícil.

 

 

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ SOBRE

GUIA DE CONVERSAÇÃO – NO TREM

 

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 LESSON 04 - DEFINITE ARTICLES

(version in English)

 

ARTICLES

Article is the class of words that the noun prefixes to define, limit or modify its use. The articles are divided into defined and undefined.

 

The Definite Article - (The)

The Definite Article is used before a noun already known by the listener or reader, but in English, is invariable in gender and number, unlike what happens in Portuguese. Examples:

The boy

The boys

The girl

The girls

 

When to use the Definite Article

The uses a before:

 

1. Nouns mentioned above, as defined by the speaker:

He wrote some letters and postcards. The letters were to his girlfriend.

 

Mary bought a funny dress. The dress is full of small animals and big flowers.

 

2. Nouns unique in its kind:

The Sun, the Moon, the sky, the planet Earth, the universe, etc.

 

3. Geographical names of rivers, seas, canals, oceans, poles, deserts, gulfs, island groups and chains of mountains:

The Amazonas River, The Pacif Ocean, The English Channel, The North Pole, The Sahara, The Gulf of Mexico, The Bahamas, The Alps, etc.

 

4. Adjectives used as nouns in the plural:

The poor, The powerful, The good, The bad

 

Note: As we proceed, then, to the singular nouns? see:

The powerful man helped the poor woman.

 

Note that we specify to whom the adjective is referring (adjective + noun)

 

5. Compound names of countries:

The United Kingdom

The United States

The United Arab Emirates

The Dominican Republic

 

6. With nouns to indicate the whole family or specify the person about whom it speaks (but never used article before nouns and possessive):

The Martins went to the restaurant they like.

The Kennedys are a famous family.

The John I'm talking about is Jane's brother.

Peter is my Friend. (and not "The Peter is my friend")

We are selling our house. (and not "We are selling the our house")

 

7. Before names of musical instruments and rhythms / dances:

John plays the piano very well.

That girl who is playing the clarinet is Martha's sister.

Mary likes the saxophone.

Valéria dances the samba graciously.

Juan dances the tango like a professional.

 

8. With names of newspapers:

The Economist, The New York Times, The Washington Post

 

9. With most of the names of buildings:

The Capitol, The Empire States, The Louvre, The Kremlin, The Taj Mahal, The Vatican

 

Exceptions: Buckingham Palace and all the buildings with the word hall (Carnegie Hall, Lilly Hall).

 

10. Before names of cinemas, theaters, hotels, restaurants, clubs, museums, libraries and art galleries:

There's a foreign film festival at the Paramount.

I saw Barbra Streisand at the Palladium in 1975.

They have a reservation at the Plaza for next week.

We are going to have dinner at the Chinese Palace.

They plan to go dancing at the Apollo.

You must visit the British Museum.

The lecture at the Boston Library will start at seven o'clock.

 

11. With superlatives:

Tony is the tallest guy in our group.

Hellen is the best teacher I've ever had.

 

12. With the comparative degree to indicate that both increase or decrease in the same proportion:

The more she gets, the more she wants.

The more I study philosophy, the less I understand it.

 

13. With ordinal numerals indicating numerical emphasis:

This is the first time she comes to Brazil.

 

When NOT to use the Definite Article

 

The omitted the when we have:

 

1. Names of cities, states, islands, countries, continents:

Brazil is a very large country.

Roraima is the Brazil's Northernmost state.

Hawaii is in Oceania.

Asia is bigger than Europe.

Rio is a beautiful city.

They will stay in Las Vegas for a while.

 

2. Proper names and possessive pronouns:

Mary's best friend is Bob.

I think our gold was stolen. (and not "I think the our gold was stolen")

 

3. Plural nouns used in a general sense:

People all over the world want to be happy.

Children like toys.

Man is mortal.

Brazilians love soccer.

 

Important:

The count nouns are those that permit plural, that is, most. Eg: cat, computer, hot dog.

The nouns that are in English (sometimes also in Portuguese), does not admit plural. Examples: gold, information, money, advice. When the noun is countable and is being used in a generic sense in the singular is employed Article:

The cat is a domestic animal.

But: Cats are domestic animals.

 

The computer is a wonder of  technology.

But: Computers are wonders of technology.

 

Note that the item is omitted only in the plural, but the singular, no!

 

4. Abstract nouns or materials that indicate:

         We all need some little happiness.

Most people fear death.

Diamond is a girl's best friend.

Silk is much used in summer.

 

Note that the item is omitted only in the plural, but the singular, no!

 

4. Abstract nouns or materials that indicate:

The happiness she feels seems to be artificial.

The death of the milkman is still a mystery.

The diamond Paul gave her is beautiful.

The silk my aunt brought from China is expensive.

 

5. Nouns denoting sports, science, academic disciplines, colors, meals, seasons, months and days of the week:

Tennis is very popular in Australia.

Biology is an important science.

Chemistry and Physics are required for that course.

Yellow is Steve's favorite color.

I'm going to the bank after lunch.

Dinner will be served at eight.

Could you please send me the books on Monday?

 

But:

The blue of her eyes is stunning.

The lunch my grandma offered us was delicious.

The winter we spent in London was unforgettable.

 

Note that nouns highlighted in this last group are employed in the specific sense.

 

6. Titles or job titles, although the lead article, as in Portuguese, no article should be used when accompanied by name:

 

The president came to our city.

But: President Kennedy was murdered.

 

The Queen of England lives in London.

But: Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in 1953.

 

The doctor is visiting his patients.

But: Doctor Varella is visiting his patients.

 

The captain spoke to the soldiers.

But: Captain Smith spoke to the soldiers.

 

7. Certain nouns as bed, church, court, hospital, prison, college, school, market, home, society and  work, when used for the purpose for which they are designed typically as follows:

Our children go to bed at nine.

We go to church every Sunday to attend the Mass.

He'll send them all to court.

Tony is very sick. He is still in hospital.

The thieves were sent to prison.

Frank attends college in Florida.

They don't go to market on Saturdays because it's the crowdest day.

The students went home earlier.

My wife goes to work on foot.

 

8. Before the next and last words in temporal expressions:

         We all plan to fly to Europe next semester.

Last week, Melanie didn't come to school because she was sick.

 

9. Faced with words that refer to languages​​:

They want to speak English fluently.

French and Rumanian are also romance languages.

Chinese is a very difficult language.

 

 

 

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GUIDE OF CONVERSATION - THE TRAIN