Grammar



pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 LESSON 04 - DEFINITE ARTICLES

(version in English)

 

ARTICLES

Article is the class of words that the noun prefixes to define, limit or modify its use. The articles are divided into defined and undefined.

 

The Definite Article - (The)

The Definite Article is used before a noun already known by the listener or reader, but in English, is invariable in gender and number, unlike what happens in Portuguese. Examples:

The boy

The boys

The girl

The girls

 

When to use the Definite Article

The uses a before:

 

1. Nouns mentioned above, as defined by the speaker:

He wrote some letters and postcards. The letters were to his girlfriend.

 

Mary bought a funny dress. The dress is full of small animals and big flowers.

 

2. Nouns unique in its kind:

The Sun, the Moon, the sky, the planet Earth, the universe, etc.

 

3. Geographical names of rivers, seas, canals, oceans, poles, deserts, gulfs, island groups and chains of mountains:

The Amazonas River, The Pacif Ocean, The English Channel, The North Pole, The Sahara, The Gulf of Mexico, The Bahamas, The Alps, etc.

 

4. Adjectives used as nouns in the plural:

The poor, The powerful, The good, The bad

 

Note: As we proceed, then, to the singular nouns? see:

The powerful man helped the poor woman.

 

Note that we specify to whom the adjective is referring (adjective + noun)

 

5. Compound names of countries:

The United Kingdom

The United States

The United Arab Emirates

The Dominican Republic

 

6. With nouns to indicate the whole family or specify the person about whom it speaks (but never used article before nouns and possessive):

The Martins went to the restaurant they like.

The Kennedys are a famous family.

The John I'm talking about is Jane's brother.

Peter is my Friend. (and not "The Peter is my friend")

We are selling our house. (and not "We are selling the our house")

 

7. Before names of musical instruments and rhythms / dances:

John plays the piano very well.

That girl who is playing the clarinet is Martha's sister.

Mary likes the saxophone.

Valéria dances the samba graciously.

Juan dances the tango like a professional.

 

8. With names of newspapers:

The Economist, The New York Times, The Washington Post

 

9. With most of the names of buildings:

The Capitol, The Empire States, The Louvre, The Kremlin, The Taj Mahal, The Vatican

 

Exceptions: Buckingham Palace and all the buildings with the word hall (Carnegie Hall, Lilly Hall).

 

10. Before names of cinemas, theaters, hotels, restaurants, clubs, museums, libraries and art galleries:

There's a foreign film festival at the Paramount.

I saw Barbra Streisand at the Palladium in 1975.

They have a reservation at the Plaza for next week.

We are going to have dinner at the Chinese Palace.

They plan to go dancing at the Apollo.

You must visit the British Museum.

The lecture at the Boston Library will start at seven o'clock.

 

11. With superlatives:

Tony is the tallest guy in our group.

Hellen is the best teacher I've ever had.

 

12. With the comparative degree to indicate that both increase or decrease in the same proportion:

The more she gets, the more she wants.

The more I study philosophy, the less I understand it.

 

13. With ordinal numerals indicating numerical emphasis:

This is the first time she comes to Brazil.

 

When NOT to use the Definite Article

 

The omitted the when we have:

 

1. Names of cities, states, islands, countries, continents:

Brazil is a very large country.

Roraima is the Brazil's Northernmost state.

Hawaii is in Oceania.

Asia is bigger than Europe.

Rio is a beautiful city.

They will stay in Las Vegas for a while.

 

2. Proper names and possessive pronouns:

Mary's best friend is Bob.

I think our gold was stolen. (and not "I think the our gold was stolen")

 

3. Plural nouns used in a general sense:

People all over the world want to be happy.

Children like toys.

Man is mortal.

Brazilians love soccer.

 

Important:

The count nouns are those that permit plural, that is, most. Eg: cat, computer, hot dog.

The nouns that are in English (sometimes also in Portuguese), does not admit plural. Examples: gold, information, money, advice. When the noun is countable and is being used in a generic sense in the singular is employed Article:

The cat is a domestic animal.

But: Cats are domestic animals.

 

The computer is a wonder of  technology.

But: Computers are wonders of technology.

 

Note that the item is omitted only in the plural, but the singular, no!

 

4. Abstract nouns or materials that indicate:

         We all need some little happiness.

Most people fear death.

Diamond is a girl's best friend.

Silk is much used in summer.

 

Note that the item is omitted only in the plural, but the singular, no!

 

4. Abstract nouns or materials that indicate:

The happiness she feels seems to be artificial.

The death of the milkman is still a mystery.

The diamond Paul gave her is beautiful.

The silk my aunt brought from China is expensive.

 

5. Nouns denoting sports, science, academic disciplines, colors, meals, seasons, months and days of the week:

Tennis is very popular in Australia.

Biology is an important science.

Chemistry and Physics are required for that course.

Yellow is Steve's favorite color.

I'm going to the bank after lunch.

Dinner will be served at eight.

Could you please send me the books on Monday?

 

But:

The blue of her eyes is stunning.

The lunch my grandma offered us was delicious.

The winter we spent in London was unforgettable.

 

Note that nouns highlighted in this last group are employed in the specific sense.

 

6. Titles or job titles, although the lead article, as in Portuguese, no article should be used when accompanied by name:

 

The president came to our city.

But: President Kennedy was murdered.

 

The Queen of England lives in London.

But: Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in 1953.

 

The doctor is visiting his patients.

But: Doctor Varella is visiting his patients.

 

The captain spoke to the soldiers.

But: Captain Smith spoke to the soldiers.

 

7. Certain nouns as bed, church, court, hospital, prison, college, school, market, home, society and  work, when used for the purpose for which they are designed typically as follows:

Our children go to bed at nine.

We go to church every Sunday to attend the Mass.

He'll send them all to court.

Tony is very sick. He is still in hospital.

The thieves were sent to prison.

Frank attends college in Florida.

They don't go to market on Saturdays because it's the crowdest day.

The students went home earlier.

My wife goes to work on foot.

 

8. Before the next and last words in temporal expressions:

         We all plan to fly to Europe next semester.

Last week, Melanie didn't come to school because she was sick.

 

9. Faced with words that refer to languages​​:

They want to speak English fluently.

French and Rumanian are also romance languages.

Chinese is a very difficult language.

 

 

 

NEXT LESSON WILL TALK ABOUT

GUIDE OF CONVERSATION - THE TRAIN

 

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 26:

"I, I complained of having no shoes until I met a man who had no feet."

 

( K.G. )

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 WARNING

English

The lessons were available in 4 languages: Portuguese, English, Spanisn and French, in that order. Good studies.

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 LIÇAÕ 05 – GUIA DE CONVERSAÇÃO

“EM VIAGEM – NO TREM”

(Versão em Português)

 

·        By train

·        No trem

 

·        Taxi, take me to the railway station, please.

·        Táxi, leve-me à estação ferroviária, por favor.

 

·        Could you tell me where the railway station is?

·        Pode me dizer onde fica a estação ferroviária?

 

·        I would like to see the railway timetable.

·        Eu gostaria de consultar o horário dos trens.

 

·        I am looking for the ticket-office.

·        Estou procurando o guichê.

 

·        Two first-class tickets for …, please.

·        Dois bilhetes de primeira classe para ..., por favor.

 

·        How much is the ticket to …

·        Quanto é a passagem para ...?

 

·        A single ticket, please.

·        Um bilhete de ida, por favor

 

·        A return ticket.

·        Um bilhete de ida e volta.

 

·        A no smoking compartment.

·        Vagão de não fumantes.

 

·        At what time is the train for … due to leave?

·        A que horas sai o trem para ...?

 

·        From what platform?

·        De que plataforma?

 

·        At what time does it get to …?

·        A que horas ele chega a ...?

 

·        Is it a nonstop train?

·        trem é direto?

 

·        Where do I have to change?

·        Onde tenho que fazer baldeação?

 

·        At what time is the connection for …?

·        A que horas é a conexão para ...?

 

·        Does this train also stop at … station?

·        Esse trem também para na estação de ...?

 

·        Do I need a booking?

·        Preciso fazer reserva?

 

·        Porter, please take my luggage to the train for …?

·        Carregador, leve minha bagagem para o trem que vai para ..., por favor.

 

·        How much do I owe you?

·        Quanto lhe devo?

 

·        We have booked ... seats.

·        Temos ... lugares reservados.

 

·        Is this seat free?

·        Esse lugar está desocupado?

 

·        Somebody has already taken my seat.

·        Meu lugar já está ocupado?

 

·        I have got number ...

·        Tenho o número ...

 

·        May I open the window?

·        Posso abrir a janela?

 

·        The air-conditioning isn’t working.

·        O ar-condicionado não está funcionando.

 

·        Would you kindly close the window, please?

·        Quer fechar a janela, por favor?

 

·        The heating system has broken down.

·        aquecimento quebrou.

 

·        Is there a restaurant car on this train?

·        Há um vagão-restaurante neste trem?

 

·        At what time can one have something to eat?

·        A que horas pode-se comer alguma coisa?

 

·        Do you sell sandwiches and drinks in this carriage?

·        Vendem sanduíches e bebidas neste vagão?

 

·        I can’t find my luggage!

·        Não consigo encontra minhas malas.

 

·        These aren’t my bags.

·        Esta não é a minha bagagem.

 

·        I have forgotten my suitcase on the train.

·        Esqueci minha maleta no trem.

 

·        Where is the lost property office?

·        Onde fica o guichê de objeto perdidos?

 

·        The railway police, please.

·        A policia ferroviária, por favor.

 

·        Is there a tourist agency in the station?

·        Existe alguma agência de turismo na estação?

 

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ  SOBRE VOZ PASSIVA

 

 

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 LIÇAÕ 05 – GUIA DE CONVERSAÇÃO

“EM VIAGEM – NO TREM”

(Versão em Inglês)

 

•        By train

 

•        Taxi, take me to the railway station, please.

 

•        Could you tell me where the railway station is?

 

•        I would like to see the railway timetable.

 

•        I am looking for the ticket-office.

 

•        Two first-class tickets for …, please.

 

•        How much is the ticket to …

 

•        A single ticket, please.

 

•        A return ticket.

 

•        A no smoking compartment.

 

•        At what time is the train for … due to leave?

 

•        From what platform?

 

•        At what time does it get to …?

 

•        Is it a nonstop train?

 

•        Where do I have to change?

 

•        At what time is the connection for …?

 

•        Does this train also stop at … station?

 

•        Do I need a booking?

 

•        Porter, please take my luggage to the train for …?

 

•        How much do I owe you?

 

•        We have booked ... seats.

 

•        Is this seat free?

 

•        Somebody has already taken my seat.

 

•        I have got number ...

 

•        May I open the window?

 

•        The air-conditioning isn’t working.

 

•        Would you kindly close the window, please?

 

•        The heating system has broken down.

 

•        Is there a restaurant car on this train?

 

•        At what time can one have something to eat?

 

•        Do you sell sandwiches and drinks in this carriage?

 

•        I can’t find my luggage!

 

•        These aren’t my bags.  

 

•        I have forgotten my suitcase on the train.

 

•        Where is the lost property office?

 

•        The railway police, please.

 

•        Is there a tourist agency in the station?

 

 

 

The NEXT LESSON will BE ON PASSIVE VOICE

 

 

 

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 LIÇAÕ 05 – GUIA DE CONVERSAÇÃO

“EM VIAGEM – NO TREM”

(Versão em Francês)

 

•        By train

•        Dans le train

 

•        Taxi, take me to the railway station, please.

•        Taxi, à la gare, s’il vous plaît.

 

•        Could you tell me where the railway station is?

•        Où se trouve la gare?

 

•        I would like to see the railway timetable.

•        Je voudrais consulter l´horaire des trains.

 

•        I am looking for the ticket-office.

•        Je cherche le guichet.

 

•        Two first-class tickets for …, please.

•        Je voudrais deux billets de première classe pour ..., s’il vous plaît.

 

•        How much is the ticket to …

•        Combine coûte um billet pour …?

•        A single ticket, please.

•        Aller seulement, s’il vous plaît. 

 

•        A return ticket.

•        Aller et retour.

 

•        A no smoking compartment.

•        Voiture non fumeurs.

 

•        At what time is the train for … due to leave?

•        À quelle heure part le train pour …?

 

•        From what platform?

•        Sur quel quai?

 

•        At what time does it get to …?

•        À quelle heure on arrive à …?

 

•        Is it a nonstop train?

•        C’est um train direct?

 

•        Where do I have to change?

•        Il faut changer où?

 

•        At what time is the connection for …?

•        À quelle heure est la correspondance pour ...?

 

•        Does this train also stop at … station?

•        Le train s’arrête aussi à la gare de ...?

 

•        Do I need a booking?

•        La réservation est obligatoire?

 

•        Porter, please take my luggage to the train for …?

•        ¿Por favor, me puede llevar el equipaje al tren de ...?

 

•        How much do I owe you?

•        ¿Cuánto le debo?

 

•        We have booked ... seats.

•        Nous avons réservé ... places.

 

•        Is this seat free?

•        Cette place est occupée?

 

•        Somebody has already taken my seat.

•        Ma place est déjà occupée?

 

•        I have got number ...

•        J’ai le numéro ...

 

•        May I open the window?

•        Je peux ouvir la fenêtre?

 

•        The air-conditioning isn’t working.

•        L’air conditionné ne fonctionne pas.

 

•        Would you kindly close the window, please?

•        Vous pouvez fermer la fenetrê, s’il vous plaît?

 

•        The heating system has broken down.

•        La chauffage est em panne.

 

•        Is there a restaurant car on this train?

•        Il y a une voiture restaurant?

 

•        At what time can one have something to eat?     

•        À quelle heure peut-on manager?

 

•        Do you sell sandwiches and drinks in this carriage?

•        On peut acheter des sandwichs et des boissons dans cette voiture?

 

•        I can’t find my luggage!

•        Je suis em train d’attendre le porteur.

 

•        These aren’t my bags.

•        Ce ne sont pas mes valises.

 

•        I have forgotten my suitcase on the train.

•        J’ai oublié ma valise dans le train.

 

•        Where is the lost property office?

•        Où se trouve le bureau des object perdus?

 

•        The railway police, please.

•        Le poste de police de la gare, s’il vous plaît.

 

•        Is there a tourist agency in the station?

•        Il ya une agence de tourisme à la gare?

 

 

La PROCHAINE LEÇON SERA SUR VOIX PASSIVE

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 27:

"Happiness is to make sure that our life is not going uselessly!"

 

< Erico Verissimo >

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 WARNING

English

The lessons were available in 4 languages: Portuguese, English, Spanisn and French, in that order. Good studies.

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 LIÇÃO 06 – VOZ PASSIVA

(Versão em Português)

 

         A voz passiva é formada colocando-se o verbo “to be” no mesmo tempo verbal que o verbo principal, e o verbo principal no particípio passado.

         O objeto da voz ativa torna-se o sujeito da voz passiva.

         Ele estudou a lição.

         A lição foi estudada por ele.

 

         He studied the lesson.

The lesson was studied by him.

 

Ex.: He has painted his car.

        His car has been painted (by him).

        They can’t do this.

        This can’t be done (by them).

         They will give a present.

          A present will be given (by them)

 

Fique ligado!

         Se o verbo for transitivo direto e indireto, e portanto possuir dois objetos (direto e indireto), é possível haver situações em que qualquer um dos dois objetos poderá ser eleito sujeito da voz passiva.

         They          gave           a present             to her.

         Sujeito         Verbo                   O. Direto              O. Indireto

                            S. Past

 

Caso 1: A presente was given to her (by them)

Caso 2: She was given a present (by him)

 

Atenção:

         Para traduzir para o Inglês uma frase em Português na qual o sujeito é indeterminado, deve-se usar a voz passiva, uma vez que na língua inglesa não há o reconhecimento desta forma de expressão.

         Ex.: Contaram a estória a Maria.

                 Maria was told the story.

                  The story was told to Maria.

 

 

 

 

A PRÓXIMA LIÇÃO SERÁ SOBRE

GUIA DE CONVERSAÇÃO – NO AVIÃO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
I speak:
Portuguese
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
34761

 LECCIÓN 06 – VOZ PASIVA

(Versión en Español)

 

La voz pasiva es formada colocándose el verbo “to be” el mismo tiempo verbal que el verbo principal, y el verbo principal en el particípio pasado.

El objeto de la voz activa se hace el sujeto de la voz pasiva.

Él estudió la lección.

La lección fue estudiada por él.

 

         He studied the lesson.

The lesson was studied by him.

 

Ej.: He has painted his car.

        His car has been painted (by him).

        They can’t do this.

        This can’t be done (by them).

         They will give a present.

          A present will be given (by them)

 

Quede conectado!

Si el verbo sea transitivo directo e indirecto, y por lo tanto posea dos objetos (directo e indirecto), es posible haber situaciones en que cualquier uno de los dos objetos podrá ser electo sujeto de la voz pasiva.

They          gave           a present             to her.

         Sujeto                   Verbo                   O. Directo            O. Indirecto

                            S. Past

 

Caso 1: A presente was given to her (by them)

Caso 2: She was given a present (by him)

 

Atención:

Para traducir para el Inglés una frase en Portugués en la cual el sujeto es indeterminado, se debe usar la voz pasiva, una vez que en la lengua inglesa no hay el reconocimiento de esta forma de expresión.     

Ex.: Contaram a estória a Maria.

                 Maria was told the story.

                  The story was told to Maria.

 

 

 

 

La PRÓXIMA LECCIÓN SERÁ SOBRE

GUÍA DE CONVERSACIÓN – EN El AVIÓN