Grammar



pauloviana2012

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 35:

"Just because certain things are difficult that we dare not. Precisely because we dare not that such things are hard!"

 

< Seneca, Roman philosopher, 4AC-65DC >

 

pauloviana2012

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 LESSON 14 – FALSE COGNATES

 

ENGLISH

PORTUGUESE

actual

Real

Present

atual

advise

Aconselhar

advice

Conselho

application

Pedido, requerimento

appoint

Nomear

Point to, point at

Apontar

appointment

Compromisso

assist

Ajudar

attend

Assistir, frequentar

To answer the telephone

Atender o telefone

character

Personagem

china

China, porcelana

cigar

Charuto

cigarette

Cigarro

collar

Colarinho, gola

necklace

Colar

college

Faculdade

school

Colégio

comprehensive

Amplo

data

Dados no sentido de informação

(processamento de dados)

die

Dado (de jogo)

Date

Data, encontro

deception

Ilusão, engano

disappointment

Decepção

Depend on

Contar com

discuss

Debater, conversar

argue

Discutir

disgust

Aversão, nojo

sadness

desgosto

Enroll, enrol

Matricular-se

To roll up

Enrolar

eventuall

Finalmente

accidentally

Eventualmente

exit

Saída

exquisite

requintado

odd

Esquisito

fabric

Tecido

factory

Fábrica

improve

Melhorar

ingenious

Hábil, engenhoso

engenuous

Ingênuo, inocente

injury

Ferimento

intend

pretender

To understand

Entender

interest

Juros

large

Grande

wide

largo

lecture

Palestra, conferência

reading

Leitura

library

Biblioteca

bookstore

Livraria

lunch

Almoço

magazine

revista

medicine

Medicina, remédio

novel

Romance

Soap opera

Novela

office

Escritório

operator

Telefonista

parent

Pai e mãe

relatives

Parentes

park

Estacionar

petrol

Gasolina

Petroleum, oil

Petróleo

physics

Física (ciência)

physicist

Físico (cientista)

physician

Médico

plant

Fábrica

police

Polícia

policy

Política (estratégia) ou apólice de seguro

politics

Política (dos políticos)

Politician

Político

pork

Carne de porco

Pig, swine

Porco

prejudice

Preconceito

prescription

Receita médica

pretend

Fingir

intend

Pretender

private

Particular

proper

Apropriado

próprio

Own

push

Empurrar

puxar

To pull

question

Pergunta

realize

Perceber, compreender

relative

Parente

report

Relatar

resign

Demitir-se

rest

Morte ou descanso

resume

Dar prosseguimento

retire

Aposentar-se

romance

Namoro

save

Economizar

sort

Tipo, espécie

luck

Sorte

stranger

Estranho, desconhecido

foreigner

Estrangeiro

Support

sustentar

To bear

Suportar

sympathetic

Compreensivo

pleasant

Simpático

sympathy

Solidariedade

terrific

Fantástico

tribute

Homenagem

vegetable

Legume, hortaliça

 

 

 

THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON GUIDE OF CONVERSATION

“IN THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT”

pauloviana2012

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 36:

"It's sad change of ideas; sad is not having ideas for change ..."

 

< Baron Itararé >

 

pauloviana2012

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 LESSON 15 – GUIDE OF CONVERSATION

“In the collective transports”

 

·        In the collective transports

·        Nos transportes coletivos

 

·        I am looking for the subway station

·        Estou procurando a estação do metrô

 

·        Could you please tell me where the stop of  bus number … is?

·        Pode me dizer onde fica o ponto do ônibus número ... por favor

 

·        I have to go to … street.

·        Tenho que ir à rua...

 

·        Is tram number ... all right?

·        O bonde número ... serve?

 

·        At what stop do I get off?

·        Em que ponto devo descer?

 

·        How many stops to ..., please?

·        Quantas são as paradas até ..., por favor?

 

·        Two tickets for ..., please.

·        Dois bilhetes para ..., por favor.

 

·        How much is the tram (bus, subway) fare?

·        Quanto custa o bilhete de bonde (ônibus, metrô)?

 

·        Is the ticket valid all the day?

·        O bilhete é válido para o dia inteiro?

 

·        On all lines?

·        Em todos os trajetos?

 

·        Which bus goes to ... square?

·        Qual é o ônibus que passa na praça...?

 

·        Do I have to change?

·        Tenho que trocar de ônibus?

 

·        Where do I have to get off?

·        Onde tenho que descer?

 

·        Will you please let me know when I have to get off?

·        Pode me avisar quando eu tiver que descer, por favor?

 

·        The tram has just gone.

·        O bonde acabou de passar.

 

·        When will the next one pass?

·        Quando virá o próximo?

 

NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON REVIEW THE GENDER OF NOUNS

 

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 37:

"There is nothing that best define a person than what she does when they have all the freedom of choice."

 << William M. Bulger >>

pauloviana2012

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 LESSON 16 – REVIEW OF ABSTRACT NOUNS

 

 

Substantivos Abstratos - Abstract Nouns

The second great category of nouns are the Abstract ones. On the contrary of the Concrete ones, it is not possible to try an Abstract noun with our senses. They refer to ideas, feelings, states, qualities, actions and other abstractions of our minds. For example:

ability (habilidade), anger (raiva), courage (coragem), effort (esforço), fear (medo), goodness (bondade), love (amor), movement (movimento), nature (natureza), sadness (tristeza), speed (velocidade), trip (viagem), joy (alegria), wisdom (sabedoria).

What color does it have "effort"? We cannot know because we cannot see it. What texture does it have "anger"? We cannot touch it. What taste does it have "trip"? We have no notion, we cannot taste it. "Wisdom" does it do noise? Certainly, no. Does it smell? Neither!

Analyse the picture down. We present abstract nouns connecting them with concrete someone:

Abstract Nouns

Concrete Nouns

beauty (beleza)

tree (árvore), face (rosto)

bravery (bravura, coragem)

fire fighter [bombeiro(a)], soldier [soldado(a)]

convenience (conveniência)

computer (computador), credit card (cartão de crédito)

happiness (felicidade)

car (carro), ice cream (sorvete)

intelligence (inteligência)

student (estudante), researcher [pesquisador(a)]

success (sucesso)

keyboard (teclado), singer [cantor(a)]

truth (verdade)

polygraph (polígrafo)

 

 

Gênero dos Substantivos - Gender of Nouns

There are three nouns types in English:

Masculino (masculine): boy (menino), man (homem), waiter (garçom), brother (irmão), groom (noivo);

Feminino (feminine): girl (menina), woman (mulher), waitress (garçonete), sister (irmã), bride (noiva);

Neutro (neuter): boat (barco), shirt (camisa), person (pessoa), lawyer (advogado ou advogada), shark (tubarão).

 

Divisions of the Type of the Nouns

1. Most of the nouns that concern persons and to his professions / functions they are neuter, i.e. it has the same form for the masculine and for the feminine thing. Examples:

doctor - médico / médica                         
lawyer - advogado / advogada                  
monarch - o monarca / a monarca           
teacher - professor / professora               
cook - cozinheiro / cozinheira              
student - aluno, o estudante / aluna, a estudante
driver - o motorista / a motorista 
translator - o tradutor / a tradutora
guest - o convidado / a convidada

 

 Observations:

- The noun ship (navio) the names and, sometimes, of cars, they can be treated (ship) how feminine. Examples:

The ship struck a big rock which almost destroyed her
(O navio bateu numa grande rocha que quase o destruiu).

A ship "was nearer and dearer to the sailor than anyone except his mother". What better reason to call his ship "she"?
(Um navio era mais próximo e querido para ele do que qualquer pessoa, com a exceção de sua mãe. Que razão melhor do que essa para chamar seu navio de "ela"?)

Look at his BMWShe is a beauty.
(Olha a BMW dele. Ela é uma belezura.)

- The noun moon (lua) is considered feminine:The moon and her glorious beams enchanted everyone.
(A lua e seus raios gloriosos encantaram a todos.)

 

 

 

 

2. There are, however, nouns that concern persons and animals and that present a form for the masculine and a different form for the feminine thing:

2.1. Type with different words:

boy (menino) - girl (menina)

man (homem) - woman (mulher)

brother (irmão) - sister (irmã)

son (filho) - daughter (filha)

uncle (tio) - aunt (tia)

father (pai) - mother (mãe)

groom (noivo) - bride (noiva)

husband (esposo, marido) - wife (esposa, mulher)

nephew (sobrinho) - niece (sobrinha)

king (rei) - queen (rainha)

lord (lorde) - lady (dama)

host (anfitrião) - hostess (anfitriã)

bachelor (solteirão) - spinster (solteirona)

monk (monge) - nun (freira)

wizard (bruxo) - witch (bruxa)

dog (cachorro) - bitch (cadela)

horse (cavalo) - mare (égua)

bull (toro) / ox (boi) – cow (vaca)

rooster (galo) - hen (galinha)

drake (pato) - duck (pata)

ram (carneiro) - ewe (ovelha)

 

2.2. Type through Sufixação (different endings):

prince (príncipe) - princess (princesa)

waiter (garçom) - waitress (garçonete)

baron (barão) - baroness (baronesa)

actor (ator) - actress (atriz)

god (deus) - goddess (deusa)

lion (leão) - lioness (leoa)

grandfather (avô) - grandmother (avó)

executor (executor) - executrix (executora)

prosecutor (promotor público) - prosecutrix (promotora pública)

hero (herói) - heroine (heroína)

sultan (sultão) - sultana (sultana)

czar (tzar) - czarina (tzarina)


2.3. Type through prefixation: It is added man or maid for persons, he or she for animals and cock or hen for birds.

manservant (criado) - maidservant (criada)

he-bear (urso) - she-bear (ursa)

cock-pigeon (pombo) - hen-pigeon (pomba)

 

THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON

INTERPRETATION OF TEXTS 01 TO 03

pauloviana2012

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 38:

"In times of crisis, only the inspiration is more important than knowledge!"

<< Albert Einstein >> 

pauloviana2012

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 LESSON 17 - INTERPRETATION OF TEXTS 01 TO 03

 

TEXT 1

        

When I was a little boy, I had a passion for maps. I looked for hours at South America or Australia, and lost myself in all the glories of exploration.

At that time, there were many blank spaces on he earth, and when I saw one that looked particularly inviting on a map (but they all look like that), I put my finger on it and said. “When I grow up will go there”. The North Pole was one of these places, I remember. Well, I haven’t been there yet, and will not try now. The glamour’s gone.

01. In accordance with the text:

a) When the author was still young, one was not interesting for maps;

b) There were still very populous lands, though the majority was distant;

c) The glories of the explorations of unknown lands were fascinating the author;

d) There were no practically reasons to explore new lands;

e) None of the previous alternatives.

 

TEXT 2

 

         You are walking alone on a deserted street at night. Suddenly a stranger steps from the shadows and jabs a sharp object in your ribs. “Give me  your wallet”. He demands. What should you do? Do not resist. Immediately hand over your wallet, your watch, your jewelry and anything else the mugger wants. That is primary survival tip given by law-enforcement officials cross the world to potential victims of armed criminals. Even if you are carrying a gun, advise police police officials, don’t try to use it. By the time you have reached for your pocket, an armed robber will have had time to kill you. Do not attempt to negotiate for some of your belongings: the longer you delay the mugger, the more impatient, and more violent, he is likely to become. If you are held up in an isolated area, do not scream. Chances are that no one will hear your cries for held, and they will only enrage – or perhaps even worse, frighten – the mugger. All in all, try not to panic, and do the best you can under any difficult situation. Above all, don’t try to be a hero.

01.The situation suggested in the first lines of the text shows:

a)     Someone in danger of being attacked by a robber.

b)    A person who is attacked by a thief but manages to scape from him.

c)     Someone who is walking in the evening and is attacked by a robber.

d)    A well-timed attempt to run away from a madman.

e)     None of the previous alternatives.

 

     02. The text, of general way, recommends:

a)     a) A high degree of care while escaping of a robbery, if if it is properly armed.

b)    b) A better possible cooperation with the police authorities, so that the robber is found it as quickly as possible.

c)     c) What does one always try to resist the robberies, so that the crimes wave can be contained.

d)    d) Calm and care while dealing with the robber, so that this one does not feel cornered or frightened, coming to react with violence.

e)     None of the previous alternatives.

 

 

03.Any delay to hang over your possessions may:

a)     Make the mugger become impatient and more violent.

b)    Infuriate the mugger and make him run away.

c)      

c) Tire the thief and make him repent from his crimes.

d) Draw the attention of an oncoming policeman.

           e) None of the previous alternatives.

 

TEXT 3

 

         During Columbia’s 54 ½ hours of flight, there were some minor problems. In their first “night” in space, astronauts Young and Crippen complained about a chill in the cabin. The problem was quickly fixed with a signal from earth that pumped warm water into the cabin’s temperature control system.

         The most serious problem came on the second night, when an alarm light flashed, and a bell took the astronauts out heir reveries. It was a warning of a malfunction in a heating unit on one of the three auxiliary power units for Columbia’s hydraulic systems, which control the landing gear. A single throw of a switch got it working again immediately, and there were no other problems up to the end of the trip.

01.Columbia’s problems:

a)     Were completely unrelated to mechanical malfunctions.

b)    Could be solved only with the help of people on earth.

c)     Did make the astronauts worry very much about them.

d)    Were readily fixed by the astronauts or the operation control.

e)     None of the previous alternatives.

 

02.You can throw a switch, but you must _____ a button.

a)     throw

b)    push

c)     pull

d)    draw

e)     none of the previous alternatives.

 

03.The astronauts “complained about a chill in the cabin”. They believed:

a)     There was an escape of air in the cabin.

b)    The temperature in the cabin had increased suddenly.

c)     The temperature in the cabin had decreased.

d)    There was a stranger within the cabin with them.

e)     None of the previous alternatives.

 

 

THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON VOCABULARY 2-4

 

pauloviana2012

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 39:

"Never walk on the path, as it only leads you where the others have been."

<< Alexander Graham Bell (American Inventor) >>        

pauloviana2012

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 ANSWERS OF THE EXERCISES OF THE LESSON 17  INTERPRETATION OF TEXTS 01 TO 03

 

TEXTO 1

01

C

 

TEXTO 02

01

02

03

C

D

A

 

TEXTO 03

01

02

03

D

B

C