Grammar



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 ANSWERS OF THE EXERCISES OF THE LESSON 22  INTERPRETATION OF TEXTS 04 TO 06

 

TEXT 04

01

02

03

04

05

06

T

F

T

F

T

F

 

TEXT 05

01

02

03

T

F

F

 

TEXT 06

01

02

C

D

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 LESSON 23 – GUIDE OF CONVERSATION “IN THE HOTEL”

 

·        Away from home and on holiday

·        Fora de casa em férias

 

·        At the hotel

·        No hotel

 

·        My name is ... Is there a booking in my name?

·        Meu nome é ... O senhor (a senhora) tem uma reserva para mim?

 

·        I have made no reservations. Do you have a vacancy?

·        Não fiz reserva; será que vocês têm um quarto desocupado?

 

·        I would like a double room with a bath for tonight, please.

·        Eu gostaria de um apartamento duplo, com banheiro, para esta noite, por favor.

 

·        Oh, you have only single room, is that it?

·        Ah, vocês só têm quartos individuais?

 

·        Well, then, two single rooms, interconnected.

·        Nesse caso, dois quartos individuais interligados, por favor.

 

·        What is the price for one night?

·        Qual é o preço da diária?

 

·        Per person?

·        Por pessoa?

 

·        Is breakfast included?

·        O café da manhã está incluído?

 

·        The suitcases are in the car.

·        As malas estão no carro.

 

·        Could I please have a bellhop for my luggage?

·        Pode me arranjar alguém para carregar a bagagem, por favor?

 

·        The key of room number …, please.

·        A chave do quarto número ..., por favor

 

·        Do you also run an early call service?

·        Vocês também têm serviço de despertador?

 

·        Would you please Wake me up at … sharp?

·        Acorde-me às ... horas em ponto, por favor.

 

·        I am expecting some phone calls. You will find me in the hall.

·        Estou esperando alguns telefonemas. Vou estar no saguão.

 

·        What is the hotel phone number, please?

·        Qual é o telefone do hotel, por favor?

 

·        Can one phone abroad directly from one’s room?

·        É possível fazer ligações diretas do quarto para o exterior?

 

·        I need to look up a phone number in the town’s telephone directory.

·        Eu gostaria de consultar o catálogo de telefones da cidade.

 

·        I should like to stay at this hotel for three days, if I may.

·        Eu gostaria de ficar três dias no hotel.

 

·        When do you serve meals?

·        A que horas vocês servem as refeições?

 

·        Do you run a room service?

·        Vocês têm serviço de quarto?

 

·        Please send us up lunch for two.

·        Por favor, mande almoço para duas pessoa.

 

·        Have you also got a laundry service?

·        Vocês também têm serviço de lavanderia?

 

·        I have some clothes to be washed (dry-cleaned) and ironed.

·        Tenho algumas roupas para lavar (lavar a seco) e passar.

 

·        I have forgotten to bring soap and toothpaste.

·        Esqueci de trazer sabonete e pasta de dentes.

 

·        Could you get me some, please?

·        Poderia consegui-los para mim, por favor?

 

·        Could you recommend a good restaurant in the neighbourhood?

·        Pode me indicar um bom restaurante na vizinhança?

 

·        A regular diner will do.

·        Não precisa ser um lugar de luxo.

 

·        Is there a tennis court in the hotel premises?

·        O hotel tem quadra de tênis?

 

·        Does one have to make reservation?

·        É preciso fazer reserva?

 

·        I would like to play a match this afternoon.

·        Eu gostaria de jogar hoje à tarde.

 

·        At what time will the court be free?

·        A que horas a quadra estará livre?

 

·        Is there a swimming-pool too?

·        Vocês também têm piscina?

 

·        Is there a taxi or bus service nearby?

·        Há algum serviço de táxis ou ônibus aqui por perto?

·        How far is the hotel from the station?

·        A que distância fica o hotel da estação?

 

·        Will you please have my bill ready by tomorrow morning?

·        Pode preparar minha conta para amanhã de manhã, por favor?

 

·        I am leaving very early tomorrow.

·        Vou sair amanhã bem cedo.

 

·        Let us close the account tonight.

·        Vamos fechar a conta hoje à noite.

 

·        Do you accept credit cards?

·        Vocês aceitam cartões de crédito?

 

·        May I have my passport back, please?

·        Queira devolver meu passaporte, por favor.

 

 

 

 

NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON REVIEW OF COUNTABLE AND INCOUNTABLE

pauloviana2012

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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 45:

"The degree of civilization of a society is measured by the degree of freedom of women."

<< Charles Fourier >>

pauloviana2012

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pauloviana2012
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 LESSON 24 – COUNTABLE OR UNCOUNTABLE

 

 

Contáveis ou Incontáveis? - Countable or Uncountable?

The nouns can be classified in countable (contáveis) and uncountable (incontáveis). In the dictionaries we can find the indication [C (countable noun)] for them you were counting and [U (uncountable nouns)] for the countless ones. 

Substantivos Contáveis - Countable Nouns

Countable Nouns are the names of objects, persons, you devise, places, you liven up, etc, that in English can be counted, enumerated, representing most of the nouns. These nouns are used so much in the singular form as in plural.

 

A bee

 

Many bees

 

 

In the singular one, they can be preceded of numbers, of definite article the, of indefinite articles a/an and of pronouns in the singular one (this, that, my, your, etc).

In the plural, they can be preceded of several pronouns as some, many, a lot of, few, these, those, my, their, etc.

For example:

a newspaper (um jornal) 

two newspapers (dois jornais)

a key (uma chave)    

 

those keys (aquelas chaves)

an idea (uma ideia)   

your ideas (suas ideias)

one bottle (uma garrafa)

two bottles (duas garrafas)  

a man (um homem) 

these men (estes homens)

 

 

one house (uma casa)

a lot of houses (muitas casas)

a cat (um gato) 

some cats (alguns gatos)   

 

 

Substantivos Incontáveis - Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable Nouns (or Mass Nouns) represents a group less of nouns. They show a homogeneous substance, i.e. things that we realize more how a mass of what like one or several isolated objects, or an abstract idea that, in English, does not allow subdivisions.

These nouns, so, cannot be counted, enumerated, when the same form has towards the singular thing and towards the plural. Though the sense is plural, the verb with which they agree also is always going to be in the singular one.

Examples:

water (água)

air (ar)

salt (sal)

snow (neve)

money (dinheiro)

evidence (evidência)

music (música)

proof (prova)

ink (tinta para escrever ou para imprimir)

housework (serviço doméstico)

weather (tempo metereológico)

permission (permissão)

jewerly (joias)

eletricity (eletricidade)

 
a glass of water ( and not one water)

- We can’t sayr one waterthree saltstwo moneysfive musics.

- The countless nouns are never preceded by the indefinite articles a/an: 
a water   a money    a salt      an ink

 

- The countless nouns frequently indicate:

substance - food (comida), iron (ferro), water (água)
activities - help (ajuda), travel (viagem), work (trabalho)
human qualities - courage (coragem), cruelty (crueldade), honesty (honestidade)
abstract ideas - beauty (beleza), freedom (liberdade), life (vida), luck (sorte), time (tempo)

Important: Certain nouns that are were counted by you in Portuguese, they are countless in English.

Examples:

"Music" - Don't say it:
I wanna show you a music ->
 

The correct is:
I wanna show you a song. 
  (Quero te mostrar uma música.)
 

 There are fifteen musics in that album ->

There are fifteen songs in that album. 
(Há quinze músicas naquele álbum.)

                                                                            

         In this case, we must have known the difference in English between Music, which refers to the art of the Music as a whole (uncountable noun), and Song, which is the work, a song, composition, corner or melody (countable nous). We must have taken care in order that Music does not get confused, since, in Portuguese, we can use the same word, for two meanings.

A: Can't you help me with my homeworks homework first?

I need some informations information about Michael Curtiz.
(Você não me ajudaria em meus temas de casa antes? Preciso de algumas informações sobre Michael Curtiz.)


B: Why don't you look on the internet?

(Por que você não procura na internet?)

 

A: That's what I want to do, but can you give me an advice some advice where to look?
(Isso é o que quero fazer, mas você pode me dar um conselho de onde posso procurar?)

 

A: Do you want another toast piece of toast?

 (Você quer outra torrada?)

 

Notice what, in spite of in Portuguese the word will use in the plural, in English the noun homework is countless, i.e. he does not present form differentiated for the plural. The same thing takes place with information and toast, what also must come preceded of certain pronouns or of some expressions. See that:

- They can take place before a countless noun the article the, the lot of add the pronouns up, any, and much, but not many, what takes place only with them you were counting. I need some water. (Preciso de água.)
Would you like some cheese? or Would you like a piece of cheese? 
(Gostaria de queijo/um pedaço de queijo?)

 

- Compare  a/an and some:

Nicole bought a hat (contável), some shoes (incontável) and some perfume (incontável).
(Nicole comprou um chapéu, sapatos e perfumes.)

This morning, I read a newspaper (contável), made some phone calls (contável) and listened to somemusic (incontável).
(Hoje pela manhã, li um jornal, dei alguns telefonemas e escutei música.)

 

- To specify the quantity before countless nouns we can use some expressions, like a piece ofa cup ofa bottle ofa loaf of, etc. In this way, we will be turning them into nouns you were counting. There are some couples examples homogeneous substance x item in individual:

(since we come, some countless words in English are that you were counting in Portuguese. Be careful with them!)

 

Foods and drinks:

water, beer (cerveja), wine (vinho), tea (chá), coffee (café), etc. - a glass, a bottle, a jug, a cup of.
milk (leite) - a carton/bottle of milk (uma embalagem/garrafa)
bread (pão) - a loaf/piece/slice of bread; a loaf; a roll
cheese - a slice, a chunk, a piece of cheese (uma fatia/pedaço de queijo)

 

  

carton of milk and a chunk of cheese.

meat (carne) - a piece, a slice, a pound of meat
butter (manteiga)- a bar of butter (um tablete de manteiga)
ketchup, mayonnaise, mustard - a bottle of, a tube of.
chocolate - a bar of chocolate (um chocolate, uma barra de chocolate)
sugar - a loaf/ loaf sugar (açúcar em cubinhos)
rice (arroz) - a bowl of rice (uma tigela/um prato de arroz)
pasta (macarrão, massa) - a plate of pasta, a serving of pasta
chewing gum (goma de mascar) - a piece of chewing gum (e não a chewing gum)

 

- Many countless nouns can be used as you were counting when if he will be talking about different types of these products;

Examples:

cheese/cheeses - queijos/tipos de queijo

wine/wines - vinho/tipos de vinhos.

Ex.:
We have a selection of fine wines at very good prices.
(Temos uma seleção de vinhos finos a preços muito bons.)

butter/butters - manteiga/tipos de manteigas.

Ex.:
There were several French butters at the supermarket today.
(Havia diversas manteigas francesas no supermercado hoje.)

 

- The same noun sometimes can be contable and uncountable, but with different meanings:

 

a paper - um jornal

some paper - papel

an iron - um ferro elétrico

some iron - ferro

a glass - um copo

some glass - vidro

a rubber - uma borracha

some rubber - borracha (material)

one hair - um pêlo

some hair - cabelo

 

 

 

 

THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON TEXT 07

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

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pauloviana2012
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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 46:

"The ignorant have the courage, the wise fear."

<< Alberto Moravia - Italian Writer >>

pauloviana2012

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pauloviana2012
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 LESSON 25 – INTERPRETATION OF TEXTS 07

 

TEXT 7

 

         The Alaska pipeline starts at the frozen edge of the Artic Ocean. It stretches southward across the largest and northernmost state in the United States, ending at a remote ice-free seaport village nearly 800 miles from where it begins. It is massive in size and extremely complicated to operate.

         The steel pipe crosses windswept plains and endless indelicate tundra. It weaves through crooked canyons, climbs sheer mountains, plunges over rocky crags, makes its way through thick forests, and passes over or under hundreds of rivers and streams. The pipe is 4 feet in diameter, and up to 2 million barrels (or 84 million gallons) of crude oil can be pumped through it daily.

         Resting on H-shaped steel racks called “bents”, long sections of the pipeline follow a zigzag course high above the frozen earth. Other long sections drop out rocky ground and return to the surface later on. The pattern of the pipeline’s route is determined by the often demands of the arctic and subarctic climate, the tortuous lay of the land, and the varied compositions of soil, rock, or permafrost (permanently frozen ground). A little more than half of the pipeline is elevated above the ground. The remainder is buried anywhere from 3 to 12 feet, depending largely upon the type of terrain and the properties of the oil.

         One of he largest in the world, the pipeline cost approximately 58 billion and is by far the biggest and the most expensive construction project ever undertaken by private industry. In fact, no single business could raise that much money, so 8 major oil companies formed a consortium in order to share the costs. Each company controlled the rights to particular shares of land in the oil fields and paid into the pipeline- construction fund according to the size of the size of its holdings. Today, despite enormous problems of climate, supply shortages, equipment breakdowns, labor disagreements, treacherous terrain, a certain amount of mismanagement, and even theft, the Alaska pipeline has been completed and is operating.

 

PRATICE QUESTIONS

 

01.The passage primarily discusses the pipelines’s.

a)     Operating costs

b)    Employees

c)     Consumers

d)    Construction

 

02.The word “it” in line 4 refers to:

a)     Pipeline

b)    Ocean

c)     State

d)    Village

 

03.According to the passage, 84 million gallons of oil can through the pipeline each.

a)     Day

b)    Week

c)     Mouth

d)    Year

 

04.The phrase “Resting on” in line 12 is closest in meaning to:

a)     Consisting of

b)    Supported by

c)     Passing under

d)    Protected with

 

05.The author mention all of the following as important in determining the pipeline’s route EXCEPT the:

a)     Climate

b)    Lay of the land itself

c)     Local vegetation

d)    Kind of soil and rock

 

06.The word “undertaken” in line 24 is closest in meaning to:

a)     Removed

b)    Selected

c)     Transported

d)    Attempted

 

07.How many companies shared the costs of constructing the pipeline?

a)     Three

b)    Four

c)     Eight

d)    Twelve

 

08.The word “particular” in line 27 is closest in meaning to:

a)     Peculiar

b)    Specific

c)     Exceptional

d)    Equal

 

09.Which of the following determined what percentage of  the construction costs each member of the consortium would pay?

a)     How much oil field land each company owned

b)    How long each company had owned land in the oil fields

c)     How many people worked for each company

d)    How many oil wells were located on the company’s land

 

10.Where in the passage does the author provide a term for an earth covering that always remains frozen?

a)     Line 3

b)    Line 13

c)     Line 19

d)    Line 32

 

 

THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE OS GUIDE OF CONVERSATION “IN THE RESTAURANT”

 

 

 

 

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 47:

"What matters is not what life does to you, but what you do with what life does to you."

<< Sartre >>

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 ANSWERS OF THE EXERCISES OF THE LESSON 25  INTERPRETATION OF TEXTS 07

 

 

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

D

A

A

B

C

D

C

B

A

C

 

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 LESSON 26 – GUIDE OF CONVERSATION - “IN THE RESTAURANT”

 

·        At the restaurant

·        No restaurante

 

·        Good evening, we would like to have dinner.

·        Boa noite, nós gostaríamos de jantar.

 

·        No, we are not booked.

·        Não, não temos reserva.

 

·        There are ... of us.

·        Somos ... pessoas.

 

·        Do we have to wait very long?

·        Teremos que esperar muito?

 

·        All right, then, we’ll come back about…

·        Bom, nesse caso, estaremos de volta às ... horas, mais ou menos.

 

·        We have booked a table. Name of …

·        Reservamos uma mesa em nome de ...

 

·        Can we near the window?

·        Podemos sentar perto da janela?

 

·        Is it possible to dine outdoors?

·        É possível jantar ao ar livre?

 

·        The little boy is too small. Could we please have a cushion?

·        O menino é muito pequeno; será possível arranjar uma almofada?

 

·        Is there, by any chance, a waiter who speaks Portuguese?

·        Vocês têm algum garçom que fale português?

 

·        Can we have the menu and the wine list?

·        Pode trazer-nos o menu e a carta de vinhos, por favor?

 

·        Do you also provide a tourist menu?

·        Vocês têm algum menu para turistas?

 

·        Please , bring us an aperitif.

·        Por favor, traga-nos um aperitivo.

 

·        No, thank you, no hors d’oevre

·        Não, obrigado, sem entrada.

 

·        No first course. Let us start with the main course.

·        Não queremos entrada. Vamos pedir o prato principal.

 

 

·        For me, half a helping of…

·        Para mim, meia porção de ...

 

·        Underdone (medium rare, well done) steak, please!

·        Carne malpassada (ao ponto, bem passada), por favor.

 

·        Is this fish really fresh?

·        O peixe está fresco?

 

·        I would like it grilled.

·        Gostaria que fosse grelhado.

 

·        Is the salad already seasoned?

·        A salada já está temperada?

 

·        I prefer lemon to vinegar.

·        Prefiro limão ao vinagre.

 

·        Some more salt, please!

·        Mais sal, por favor.

 

·        I have spilt some oil on my shirt-front.

·        Espirrei azeite na camisa.

 

·        Kindly bring me some stain-remover!

·        Espirrei azeite na camisa.

 

·        May I have the bill, please!

·        A conta, por favor.

 

·        Put it all on one bill, please.

·        Ponha tudo numa conta só, por favor.

 

·        Separate bills, please.

·        Contas separadas, por favor.

 

 

 

 

 

NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON VOCABULARY 3-4

pauloviana2012

pauloviana2012 (50)

pauloviana2012
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 THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 48:

"The important thing is not what makes us the destination, but we do it."

<< Florence Nightingale >>