First of all, I want to welcome everyone, please feel free to ask any questions related to Russian :)
Hi I was wondering if you could explain the difference between усталый and усталая as it is confusing me
In Russian, all adjectives agree with a noun they modify in gender. I means that an adjective changes its ending depending on the gender of the noun / pronoun.
усталый + masculine noun, e.g., усталый ребенок (m) / a tired kid.
усталая + feminine noun, e.g., усталая женщина (f) / a tired woman.
That's why a man would say: Я усталый. / I am tired.
----> a woman would say: Я усталая./ I am tired.
Ask me if something remains unclear =)
Thank you very much that makes it very easy to understand.
My pleasure =)
At your convenience, could you explain (with some examples) the difference of how to answer the question "Where?" as it pertains to determining the proper case for a location, e.g., куда? где? I think when there is motion towards a location then the question is куда but I have been fooled by this before and am not entirely clear on this.
Thank you for your question :) Both "куда" and "где" may be translated as "where". However, their usage differs in Russian.
Where: Куда vs. Где
Куда asks about moving objects (movement towards a place) --> accusative case:
Куда ты идёшь? Я иду в магазин (accusative case). | Where are you going? I am going to a store.
Где asks about static objects (location) --> prepositional case:
Где ты? Я в магазине (prepositional case). | Where are you? I am at the store.
This is easy to remember because the vowels in Куда are у and а — nouns that end in а (feminine nouns) change to у in the accusative case. The vowel in Где is е, that is the most common prepositional noun ending.
I hope this helps :)
Thank you! I think this clears it up. Here is the exact example that confused me:
Девочка хочет плавать в Атлантический океан.
Мужчина плавает на парусной лодке в Атлантическом океане.
The first sentence is wrong, and should have been prepositional. I was fooled by the motion of swimming, but as it was explained to me, in this example the girl will not be swimming towards the ocean, she would already be in the ocean, therefore ocean is static and prepositional.
I've never had much trouble forming the case endings in Russian, my problem is always determining the right case to use, especially in longer sentences.
Well, куда is never used for asking about static objects.
Где may be used for asking about the moving objects. Let's see the difference:
1) Куда ты сейчас идёшь? Я иду в парк (accusative). | Where are you going now? I am going to a park.
2) Где ты сейчас идёшь? Я иду в парке (prepositional). | Where are you going now? I am going around the park.
Куда = movement from one place to the other place (you are not in a park; you are going there).
Где = movement around a place (you are already in the park; you are walking there).
Back to your sentence:
Девочка хочет плавать в Атлантическом океане. --> She doesn't want to swim from the other ocean or river towards the Atlantic ocean. She wants to swim in the Atlantic ocean.
Example with the куда and the accusative:
Куда плывет эта рыба? Эта рыба плывёт вниз по реке в Атлантический океан. --> Movement down the river towards the Atlantic ocean.
I hope this helps =)
It did, and I thank you immensely :)