Grammar (Грамматика русского языка)



Edwardk4u2

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Irina Mozelova

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_____________________The adverb (наречие)_______________________________

 

The adverb - the part of speech answering the question "how".

The adjective describes the noun, the adverb descibes the verb.

        go fast, sleep well  - идти быстро, спать хорошо

 

In Russian adverbs has last letter "o"

                Хорошо - well

                Плохо  - badly

                Быстро - fast

                Медленно - slowly

                Тихо - quietly

                Громко - loudly

 

Compare next following adjectives and adverbs:

Adjectives                                             Adverbs

хороший                                           хорошо

плохой                                              плохо

быстрый                                           быстро      

медленный                                       медленно

тихий                                                тихо

громкий                                            громко

As you can see, the ending is changed only. The root of the word is same.          

Fortunately the adverb hasn't the cases.                               

Irina Mozelova

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______________________The preposition (предлог)__________________________

 

The preposition is part of speech which voicing the interconnection between the words, so the prepositionals can show the cases of the following nouns .

The Prepositions are often used in Russia:

из - from (I am from Moscow) - из - from the inside

от - from  (From me to you)

для - for

в - in, at

на - on

под - under

над - over

с - with

о - about (I think about you)

около - about (The population of Russia is about 140 million people) = approximately

к - to (I go to you)

 

____The place of the prepositional in the sentence_______

There is a little difference between the English and Russian languages.

In Russian the prepositional is always before the noun or adjective, which is before the noun

 

Я иду в дом.                   Я иду в большой дом.

I'm going in the house.     I'm going in the large house.

 

This rule is for all tytpes of sentences: interrogative, negative.

Interrogaive sentences

What do you think about?” - «О чем вы думаете?»

Thanks to this rule russians can often say “About what do you think?” in English.

What are you dreaming about?”  - «О чем вы мечтаете?»

“I don’t know what to begin with” - «Я не знаю, с чего начать»

 

__________Prepositionals show the cases_________________

Nominative - there is no any preposition     -  цветок рестёт - the flower is growing

Genetive - для, от, из, с,                      - с цветка на цветок перелетают пчелы-the bees fly from a flower to a flower

Dative - к                                          - пчела прилетела к цветку - the bee have flown to a flower

Accusative  - в, на,                        - с цветка на цветок перелетают пчелы-the bees fly from a flower on a flower

Instrumental - c, под, рядом         - рядом с цветком растет еще один цветок-one more flower grows next the flower

Prepositional - о, на, в,                 - на цветке сидит пчела - a bee is seating on a flower

 

 

 

 

 

 

stevecritchley

stevecritchley (58)

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Thank you for this good information. I am very appreciative of your time and effort.

Irina Mozelova

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It is my pleasure, I'm glad that my effort helps you :)

Unal Karaca

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Спасибо за помош.

Irina Mozelova

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Всегда пожалуйста! :)

 

Помощь ;)

langloisb

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This was a big help.  Thank you for this wonderful resource.

Irina Mozelova

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I'm glad to help :)

Irina Mozelova

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____________________The conjunction (союз)____________________________

 

The conjunction ties the simple sentences in one difficult sentence.

 

Ирина вчера ушла домой, а Инна осталась в баре.

Irina went home yesterday and Inna stayed at the bar.

So  in this difficult sentence there are two simple sentences:1) Irina went  2) Inna stayed.

The conjunction ties these two simple sentences. In Russian the comma must be written before the conjunction when it ties the sentences.

 

The list of the main conjunctions:

и - and,             you and me are smart   -     ты и я  умные

а - and,           you're smart and he's not   -    ты умный, а он - нет            

но - but           I'm smart but you're smarter - я умный, но ты умнее

тоже - too       you're smart too  - ты тоже умный

также - too      you, he and his friend too will go with me - ты, он, а также его друг пойдут со мной.

или - or            Who is smarter, you or me?  - Кто умнее, ты или я?

как- as                     You're so clever as your brother - ты такой же умный как твой брат.

что - that                I know that he will come - я знаю, что он прийдет.

когда - when         He was funny when I he was young - Он был странный, когда он был молодой.

если - if                  I'll be smart if I will read much more- Я буду умным, если я буду читать намного больше.

потому что - because          You are so smart because you read a lot - Ты такой умный, потому что ты много читаешь