A culture of Russian speech



En France, nous n'avons pas de patronyme. Mais une personne peut avoir plusieurs prénoms. Et tous ces prénoms doivent être inscrits sur tous les documents administratifs.

Bien sûr, entre amis, on s'appelle par le prénom usuel ou le diminutif.

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi
I speak:
Russian
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
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____________________________My name is or меня зовут__________________________

 

 Меня зовут Ирина (Моё имя есть Ирина) - They call me Irina (my name is Irina)

 

But Russians don't speak there the word "they" because they mean people and it is clear without speaking.

Люди зовут меня Ирина

As you know you can change the places of words in the sentence thaks to the cases.

Меня зовут Ирина

 

меня - this is the accusative case from the pronoun "Я"

зовут  - this is the verb "звать" (to call) in conjugation for 3d person in plural (they) in the present tense, because it means they (people)

Ирина - use your name in Nominative case.

 

 

 

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi
I speak:
Russian
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
18728

________________________Russian names 2______________________

 

In Russia the most part of names has a full and a short form, full form is used for a job, documents and short form is used by friends and relatives.

The most part of russian full names for women has an endings vowels а/я, and men's full names have endings the consonants sounds.

 

 

                                                  There is a list of the most popular names in Russia:

                             female                                                                                         masculine

                 Мария (Maria)                                                                                   Сергей (Sergei)

                Анастасия (Anastasia)                                                                     Дмитрий (Dmitriy)

                Наталия (Natalia)                                                                              Максим (Maxim)

               Анна (Anna)                                                                                        Антон (Anton)

               Юлия (Julia)                                                                                        Владимир (Vladimir)

               Александра (Alexandra)                                                                     Александр (Alexandr)

              Виктория (Victoria)                                                                              Алексей (Alexei)

              Ирина (Irina)                                                                                         Андрей (Andrei)

              Елена (Elena)                                                                                     Валерий (Valeriy)

             Валентина (Valentina)                                                                         Иван (Ivan)

             Инна (Inna)                                                                                          Юрий (Jurij)

             Надежда (Nadezhda)                                                                          Василий (Vasilij)

            Вера (Vera)                                                                                          Михаил (Mikhail)

            Светлана (Svetlana)                                                                          Евгений (Evgenij)

            Екатерина (Ekaterina)                                                                       Геннадий (Gennadij)

            Дарья (Daria)                                                                                     Николай (Nikolai)

           Марина (Marina)                                                                                  Константин (Konstantin)

           Людмила (Ludmila)                                                                             Олег (Oleg)

           Ксения (Ksenia)                                                                                 Ярослав (Jaroslav)

           Ольга (Olga)                                                                                       Вячеслав (Vjacheslav)

          Диана (Diana)                                                                                       Валерий (Valerij)

          Кристина (Cristina)                                                                              Влад (Vlad)

          

 

But almost everybody use his short name in everyday life. Short names can have any endings and it is very often when masculine short names has endings а\я (which usually are used for feminine)

 

        Мария - Маша                                                                                      Сергей - Серёжа

      Екатерина - Катя                                                                                  Дмитрий - Дима

      Ольга - Оля                                                                                          Владимир - Вова

     Елена - Лена                                                                                          Александр - Саша

     Ирина - Ира                                                                                          Юрий - Юра

    Ксения - Ксюша                                                                                   Геннадий - Гена

 

 

          

              

 

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi
I speak:
Russian
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
18728

____________What is time? - Сколько времени? (Который час?)____________________________________

 

If you want to know time in Russia, you just can ask anybody, " Здравствуйте, подскажите, пожалуйста, который час?"

 

 

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi

mrs Mozi
I speak:
Russian
I learn:
English, Spanish, French
Busuu berries :
18728

 

The pronoun "I "="Я"

 

In English you have jusy 2 cases of yhis pronoun: I (je) and me (moi).

1) When a person is a subject you should use - I  = Я;         

Я тебя люблю! = I love you! ("I" is the subject, because the action made by me)

2) When a person is an object you should use - me  = меня, мне, мной, мне.

Ты любишь меня! - You love me ("I" is the object,the action is made by you).

 

You know that the Russian language has 6 cases for the nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals.

You can definite the case thanks to the prepositions:

 

case         pronoun            prepositions for the cases               example                   translation       

Nominative   Я      - without any prepositions, always a subject   -    Я живу в Москве  - I live in Moscow

Genetive     МЕНЯ  - of, no, from, for                     -   Ты сделал это для меня- You did it for me

Dative        МНЕ      - to                                         - Ты подарил это мне! - You gave it to me!

Accusative  МЕНЯ     -  always the object, to           -  Ты любишь меня. - You love me.      

Instrumental МНОЙ      -with, by                            - Ты был со мной там - You was with me there.

Prepositional  МНЕ    - about, on, in                      - Ты думаешь обо мне - You think about me.

 

 

The difference between "я устал" and "мне грустно". I'll try to explain.

In Russian people like to use the passive form, like:

1. Меня зовут Ирина (моё имя есть Ирина) - They call me Irina (My name is Irina) just without the subject (they). Russians mean that people (they) call me Irina (or other name) and it is clear without speaking the word "they", that's why Russians don't say : "они зовут меня Ирина).

2. Мне нравится - I like - it's a very interesting case, because in English it means that the action made by the person who likes smth or smb (I like your dog), but in Russian it means that the action made by the person who is liked by me (твоя собака нравится мне).

The difference of the ideas:

English people  think that the action (to like) is done by the person who feels the sympathy and Russians think that the object of my sympathy is subject, he's doing something for being liked by me.

Note: It is so strange but the verb "to like"='нравиться" is used by Russians in passive form like the action is doing the person (or an object) of the sympathy and the verb "to love"="любить" - is used like in English and it needs always a nominative case, and it means that the action is doing by the person who is in love with somebody.

That's why the verb "нравиться" (to like) needs the dative case for the person who feels the sympathy.

Examples:

Твой дом  нравится мне  - I like your house

Итальянская еда нравится мне - I like the Italian food.

Франция нравится мне - I like France.

 

3) Мне грустно, мне холодно, мне весело ect.

Compare:

it is sad to me     -     I'm sad

it is cold to me    -   I'm cold

it is cheerfully  to me   - I'm cheerful

The difference is that in first phrases the speaking person is not subject, he is the object, in second phrases the speaking person is subject.

Russian people use the first version in their speech very often, like "it is sad to me", and as you know the preposition "to" is an indidation of the dative case. That's why you should use мне нравится, мне грустно, мне холодно, мне обидно, мне весело, мне одиноко, мне хорошо.

 

I really hope that it is understandable for you, if you don't understand something, write me, pleae, I'll try to explain better.