Grammatikbegriffe



Kishwer

Kishwer

Kishwer
Je parle:
allemand
J'apprends:
anglais, espagnol, français, italien, turc, arabe
Busuu berries :
133671

components of a sentence

Adjektiv (adjective) An "Adjektiv" is a word which describes a noun.
It shows how something or somebody is.
Das Mädchen ist nett.


Adverb (adverb) An "Adverb" is a word which describes a verb.
It shows how something is done.
Der Junge geht schnell.


Artikel (article) The "Artikel" is a kind of companion of the noun.
It indicates which gender the noun belongs to.
There are two types of articles:
• bestimmter Artikel (definite article): der, die, das - is used if you refer to a particular person or
thing
• unbestimmter Artikel (indefinite article): ein - is used if you refer to a person or thing but don't
exactly specify their identity
das Auto
ein Auto


Konjunktion (conjunction) "Konjunktionen" join together two or more sentences.
There are two types of conjunctions:
• nebenordnende Konjunktion (coordinating conjunction): join two independent clauses
• unterordnende Konjunktion (subordinating conjunction): join a dependent clause (subordinate clause) to an independent clause (main clause)
examples: und, oder, aber, ...
examples: dass, weil, als, ...

Objekt (object) The "Objekt" is the not-acting person/thing in a sentence.
There are three types of objects:
Akkusativobjekt (direct object): receives the action done by the subject
Dativobjekt (indirect object): is the "beneficiary" of the action
Präpositionalobjekt (object of a preposition): is connected to the subject by a preposition
Er schickt dem Mädchen einen Brief.
Er schickt dem Mädchen einen Brief.
Er liegt auf dem Sofa.


Partikel (particle) "Partikel" are little helping words we use to emphasis something or make something sound less
demanding, …
doch, mal, bloß, wohl


Präposition (preposition) "Präpositionen" are small words which connect a noun to another noun, verb or adjective.
The prepostion indicates their relationhip, direction, location or function.
Der Mann lebt in Deutschland.


Pronomen (pronoun) There are several types of pronouns:
Personalpronomen (personal pronoun): replaces a noun or refers back to a noun which was
mentioned before
Possessivpronomen (possessive pronoun): a word that shows to whom something belongs
Demonstrativpronomen (demonstrative pronoun): a word to point out a particular thing or
person
Reflexivpronomen (reflexive pronoun): if subject and object (=here the pronoun) are the
same person the pronoun is called "Reflexivpronomen". It reflects back to the noun.
Relativpronomen (relative pronoun): introduces a relative clause and refers back to the noun
of the main sentence
Fragepronomen (interrogative pronoun): is a question word which is used to ask for a
pronoun
Indefinitpronomen (indefinite pronoun): is a pronoun which refers to somebody or
something in general - not a particular one


examples: ich, du, er/sie/es ...
examples: mein, dein, sein, ...
examples: dieser, jener
examples: mir, mich, dir, dich, sich ...
examples: der, den, welcher, ...
examples: Wer?, Welcher?, Wessen?, ...
examples: jeder, jemand, niemand, …

Subjekt (subject) The "Subjekt" is the acting person/thing in a sentence or it is just the subject-matter of the sentence.

Ich lese ein Buch.
Cathy ist ein Mädchen.


Substantiv (noun) A "Substantiv" is a person, place, thing, idea or animal.
A noun is (almost) everything what you can touch.
Ich lese ein Buch.


Verb (verb) The "Verb" is the action of the sentence and describes what is done.
Sometimes it discribes the existence or happening of somebody/something.
We distinguish verbs according to different points of view:

Ich lese ein Buch.
Ich bin ein Mann.

according to their typ
Hauptverben (main verbs): can stand alone and make sense without other verbs
Hilfsverben (helping verbs): are used to form tenses, moods and voices
Modalverben (modal verbs): are verbs which modify the maining of the main verb to express
permission, ability, ban, recommendation.
Usually a modal verb doesn't make sense without the main verb.

examples: lesen, schreiben, gehen, …
examples: haben, sein, werden
examples: können, müssen, dürfen, ...

according to their past forms
starke Verben (strong verbs): are irregular and change mostly their stem vowel in the
"Präteritum" and "Partizip II" form
schwache Verben (weak verbs): are regular and their past forms follow a rule
gemischte Verben (mixed verbs): behave like strong verbs and weak verbs

example: lesen/las/gelesen
example: kaufen/kaufte/gekauft
example:
rennen/rannte/gerannt

according to their prefix
trennbare Verben (separable verbs): the prefix spilts up in certain situations
untrennbare Verben (inseparable verbs): the prefix never splits up from the stem
Dualverben (dual verbs): are separable or inseparable depending on the meaning

example: fernsehen
example: verstehen
example: übersetzen

Fall (case) The "Fall" (=Kasus) is a tool to explain the role of a person/thing in a sentence. The case shows in
which relation the person/thing is to the other words. The case itself is no word. It's a fictional
thing which helps to choose e.g. the correct ending of an adjective.
There are four cases in the German language:
Nominativ (nominative) is used for the subject/predicate complement
Genitiv (genitive) is used to express ownership/possession
Dativ (dative) is used for the indirect object
Akkusativ (accusative) is used for the direct object
The role of a noun in a sentence is one indicator for the case.
Other indicators are certain prepositions, verbs and adjectives.
der Mann
des Mannes
dem Mann
den Mann
für, um, bis,... (accusative prepositions)
mit, nach, von, zu,... (dative prepositions)
wegen, während ,... (genitive prepositions)


Genus Verbi (voice) The "Genus Verbi" is a feature of a verb to focus on either the person/thing who does something
(=subject) or the process what is done (verb).
There are two "voices" in the German language:
Aktiv (active voice) is used if the focus is on the subject = It's important who does
something
Passiv (passive voice) is used if the focus is on the verb = It's not important who does something


Tom schrieb ein Buch (Tom wrote a book.)
Ein Buch wurde geschrieben. (A book was written.)

Geschlecht (gender) In addition to the natural (biological) gender every noun has got a grammatical gender which
often differs from the biological gender.
There are three gender in the German language:
männlich (male) indicated by the definite article der
weiblich (female) indicated by the definite article die
sächlich (neuter) indicated by the definite article das
der Mann
die Frau
das Kind


Modus (mood) The "Modus" is a feature of a verb that shows the relationship of a verb with the reality and its
intent.
There are three moods in the German language:
Indikativ (indicative) to speak about everything what really happens
Konjunktiv (subjunctive) to speak about fictional/unreal things
Imperativ (imperative) to make a requestion or give a command
Er ist hier.
Ich wünschte, er wäre hier.
Sei um 8.00 Uhr hier!


Numerus (number) The "Numerus" is a term to describe how many persons/things are involed in the action.
There are two forms in the German language:
Singular (singluar) is used for one person/thing
Plural (plural) is used for two or more persons/things
Ich habe ein Auto.
Wir haben zwei Autos.

Person (person) The "Person" is a term to describe the point of view in a sentence.
There are three "persons" in the German language:
1. Person (1st person) is used when the speaker(s) is the one who does something in
the sentence
2. Person (2nd person) is used if the person to whom the sentence is addressed does
something in the sentence
3. Person (3rd person) is used when the person you and your counterpart speak about
does something
ich, wir
du, ihr
er/sie/es, sie (pl.)


Zeitform (tense)
The "Zeitform" is a feature of a verb to express when something happens.
There are six tenses in the German language:
Präsens (present) to speak about current events
Präteritum (=Imperfekt) (simple past) to speak about past events
Perfekt (present perfect) to speak about past events
Plusquamperfekt (past perfect) to speak about an event in the past which had happened before an event in the past
Futur I (future) to speak about future events
Futur II (future perfect) to speak about future events which will be finished by a certain time in the future


ich sehe (I see)
ich sah (I saw)
ich habe gesehen (I have seen)
ich hatte gesehen (I had seen)
ich werde sehen (I will see)
ich werde gesehen haben (I will have seen)

Deklination (declension) The "Deklination" is a procedure we use to change nouns, pronouns and the endinings of
adjectives according to their case, number and gender.
eine schöne Frau
einer schönen Frau


Konjugation (conjugation) The "Konjugation" is a procedure we use to change verbs according to their number,
person, mood, tense and voice.
ich gehe
du gehst
er/sie/es geht
...
Steigerung (comparison) The "Steigerung" is a procedure we use to "uplift adjectives on a higher/stronger level".
There are three "levels" of an adjective:
Positiv (positive)
Komparativ (comparative)
Superlativ (superlative)
nett
netter
am nettesten

 Hallo Kishwer,

Das ist sehr interessant ;)

Vielen vielen Dank

jungfer

jungfer (22)

jungfer
Je parle:
anglais, français, arabe
J'apprends:
allemand
Busuu berries :
4380

Sehr rigoros und systematisch .. vielen Dank ^-^

gern1

gern1 (22)

gern1
Je parle:
anglais, français, arabe
J'apprends:
anglais, allemand
Busuu berries :
17594

 Prima! Sie haben eine wichtige Zusammenfassung gemacht.Deutsch ist klasse aber seine Grammatik ist keine einfache.

Ich stimme mit Ihnen wenn sagen Sie dass Übungen sind die beste Losüng.

 

Kishwer

Kishwer

Kishwer
Je parle:
allemand
J'apprends:
anglais, espagnol, français, italien, turc, arabe
Busuu berries :
133671

Danke Rahma!

Dieser Überblick soll all denen helfen, die die grammatikalischen Ausdrücke nicht so gut kennen.

Kleine Korrektur :

Prima! Sie haben eine wichtige Zusammenfassung gemacht. Deutsch ist klasse, aber ihre ( der Sprache) Grammatik ist nicht einfach.

Ich stimme mit Ihnen zu, wenn sagen Sie sagen , dass Übungen sind die beste Lösung sind.

Liebe Grüße - Kishwer

Andrés

Andrés (23)

Andrés
Je parle:
anglais, espagnol, allemand
J'apprends:
allemand
Busuu berries :
62885

 Das ist sehr nützlich!!! danke schön

M.Ayaan

M.Ayaan (39)

M.Ayaan
Je parle:
anglais, allemand, Ourdou
J'apprends:
allemand
Busuu berries :
22323

Hallo Kishwer,

 

Prima! das ist sehr nett.

 

Vielen Dank!

 

Arshad.