LESSON 27 - ENGLISH TIPS "false friends" - E
[OCCASIONALLY = eventualmente]
The adjective “EVENTUAL” and the adverb “EVENTUALLY” they are champions of audience in the lists of false cognatos. The temptation of finding what these words mean “eventual” and “eventualmente” they are champions of audience in the lists of false cognatos. The temptation of finding what these words mean “finalmente”, “posteriormente”, “consequentemente”, “no futuro”, “um dia”, “mais dia, menos dia” etc.
To say “eventualmente” in English, use the adverb “OCCASIONALLY”.
After failing four times, he eventually passed his driving test.
Após ser reprovado quatro vezes, ele finalmente conseguiu passar no
exame de habilitação.
World War I began as a local European war and eventually became a global war involving 32 countries.
A Primeira Guerra Mundial começou como uma guerra restrita à
Europa e posteriormente se tornou um conflito global envolvendo 32
[(SEXUALLY) AROUSED = excitado (sexualmente)]
If you need to translate the adjective, much attention because it has not generally exists with erotic connotations of the word "EXCITED". Their most common meanings are “entusiasmado”, “empolgado”, “animado” etc. There is yet another use of this adjective to describe a person “agitada”, “ansiosa” , or simply “nervosa”. The same principle applies to the noun “EXCITEMENT” and the adjective “EXCITING”. The excitement with erotic sense is indicated by the words "SEXUALLY EXCITED" or "(SEXUALLY) Aroused", "HORNY" (inf.), among others.
When he’s about to speak he gets excited and stutters.
Um pouco antes de falar em público ele fica nervoso e gagueja.
[SUCCESS = êxito]
The first false cognate never forget, is not it? I know
you're already tired of knowing that "EXIT" has nothing to do with "success" but this is a book of false cognates and "EXIT" could not miss, is not Really?
The exit door is on your left.
A saída fica à sua esquerda.
[ODD = esquisito]
Do not be fooled by this false cognate because in English, the synonyms of “EXQUISITE” are “DELICIOUS”, “EXCELLENT”, “PLEASURABLE”, “BEAUTIFUL” etc. Bizarre, is not it? For those who speak Spanish, no surprise there, since the same logic applies in this language. If you need to say “esquisito” in English, the options are “ODD”, “*STRANGE”, “FISHY”, “WEIRD” etc.
Rarely do the artistic mix of exquisite technique and deep passion
come together so forcefully, so beautifully, as in the work of Spanish
director Carlos Saura. (BBC)
Raramente combinam-se com tanta força e beleza a técnica refinada
e a paixão ardente como no trabalho do diretor espanhol Carlos
THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 49:
"Failure is just an opportunity to start again more intelligently."
<< Henry Ford >>
LESSON 28 - GUIDE OF CONVERSATION
“AT THE HAIRDRESSER’S AND AT THE BARBER’S”
· At the hairdresser’s and at the barber’s
· No cabelereiro e no barbeiro
· Are you free? Can I stay?
· Você está livre? Pode me atender?
· How long do I have to wait?
· Quanto tempo preciso esperar?
· I have some time to spare, I can wait.
· Tenho algum tempo livre, posso esperar.
· I am in a great hurry, I have to leave at once.
· Estou com muita pressa, tenho que sair agora mesmo.
· I’ll read the paper while I wait.
· Vou ler o jornal enquanto espero.
· Have you got any ladies’ magazines?
· Vocês têm alguma revista feminina?
· I would like to have my hair dyed and set with the hair-dryer (with curlers).
· Eu gostaria de pintar o cabelo e secá-lo com o secador manual (com rolos)
· How long would it take to have my hair permed?
· Quanto tempo demora para eu fazer uma permanente no cabelo?
· Will you please dry my hair under the hair-dryer?
· Você pode secar meu cabelo?
· Will you me a massage with a lotion for white hair, please.
· Pode me aplicar uma mensagem com uma loção pra cabelos brancos?
· I would also like to have my hands manicured and my legs depilated with wax.
· Eu também gostaria de fazer as mãos e depilar as pernas com cera.
· Please a shave and haircut
· Barba e cabelo, por favor
· Only a shave for me, please.
· Só quero fazer a barba.
· I would like to have my beard and moustache trimmed.
· Eu gostaria de aparar a barba e o bigode.
· Can you give a thinning tom y beard, please.
· Quer desbastar minha barba, por favor?
· I want to let my side whiskers grow.
· Eu quero deixar as costeletas crescerem.
· Be careful!
· I have got a very delicate.
· Tenho a pele muito fina.
· I easily get a rash.
· Ela se irrita com facilidade.
· Is that razor new?
· Essa lâmina é nova?
· This razor is not very sharp, is it?
· Essa lâmina não corta muito bem.
· It has not been properly sharpened.
· Ela não foi bem afiada.
· I want to have my hair cut.
· Eu gostaria de cortar o cabelo.
· Yes, washed too.
· Sim, lavar também.
· I generally use a shampoo for oily hair.
· Costumo usar xampu para cabelos oleosos.
· I generally use a shampoo for dry hair.
· Costumo usar xampu para cabelos secos.
· I generally use a shampoo for normal hair.
· Costumo usar xampu para cabelos normais.
· A very short haircut.
· Um corte bem curto.
· That is right!
· Assim está bom!
· Don’t shorten my hair too much, please!
· Não corte curto demais, por favor.
· I want a fashionable haircut.
· Eu gostaria de um corte moderno.
· I have cut myself.
· Eu me cortei.
· Do you have a desinfectant?
· Você tem algum anti-séptico?
· Please give my jacket a brushing down.
· Por favor, dê uma escovada em meu paletó.
· How much do I owe you?
· Quanto lhe devo?
THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON TEXT 16
THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 50:
"The biggest mistake a man can make is to live in fear of making a mistake."
<< Hebbard >>
LESSON 27 – VOCABULARY 3-4
Blocos de armar
Cavalo de balanço
Pinos de boliche
Corda de pular
In a sweet shop
Bolo em anel
Casquinha de sorvete
Fruit in syrup
Fruta em calda
Sorvete de frutas
carteira de motorista
Cinto de segurança
Freio de mão
Limpador de para-brisa
Painel de instrumentos
Ahead of time
Carrinho de bagagens
Depósito de bagagens
Guichê de informações
Sala de espera
Cartão de embarque
To take off
Excesso de bagagem
Pista de decolagem
Pista de aterrissagem
Casa de máquinas
Mapa de itinerários
Parada de ônibus
Spirits, alcoholic beverage
Carteira de identidade
Café da manhã
THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON REVIEW OF GENITIVE CASE
LESSON 28 – THE GENITIVE CASE
O Caso Genitivo - The Genitive Case ('s)
The Genitive Case (or Possessive) through the use of an apostrophe (') followed or not of s is typical of the English Language. It is used basically to show that something belongs or is associated to someone or to some element. 'S it comes after the name of the owner, who will always precede the pertaining thing. See:
The name of the boy is Joseph. = the boy's name is Joseph.
(boy = possuidor e name = pertencente)
(O nome do garoto é Joseph.)
The invaders of the country influenced the language = The country's invaders influenced the language.
(country = possuidor e invaders = pertencente)
(Os invasores do país influenciaram a língua.)
The diary of Bridget Jones = Bridget Jones's diary
(Bridget Jones = possuidor e diary = pertencente)
(O diário de Bridget Jones.)
Usos do caso genitivo - Uses of the genitive case:
Situation of use and direction
1) The form with 's is only worn-out when the owner is a lively being, what covers: people and you liven up, besides proper names, relatives in all the degrees, titles, posts, functions, professions, and other nouns that can only refer to people: child, boy (a), I make friends (a), neighbor (a), school colleague or work, etc.:
The Queen's popularity (a popularidade da rainha) - E não "The popularity of the Queen"
The governor's daughter (a filha do governador)
My neighbor's house (a casa do meu vizinho)
The children's toys (os brinquedos das crianças)
The elephant's trunk (a tromba do elefante)
2) Can not take 's inanimate (things, places and abstract nouns); these cases typically use the structure noun + of + noun or a noun compound.
The walls of my house need a new painting. (As paredes da minha casa estão precisando de uma nova pintura.) - house = coisaThe roof of my house, however, was fixed one month ago. (O teto da minha casa, no entanto, foi consertado há um mês.) - house = coisaThe door of the car ou the car door (a porta do carro) - car = coisaThe leg of the table ou the table leg (o pé da mesa) - table = coisa
Madrid is the Capital of Spain. (Madri é capital da Espanha) - Spain = lugar/país
Do you know the cause of the problem? (Você sabe a causa do problema?) - problem = substantivo abstrato
3) However, there are some exceptions to the application of 's in inanimate beings. This is the case of time steps, places comnomes people, countries, heavenly bodies, the earth, the world, names that represent a group of people (company, team, government, etc..), Legal persons and similar. Thus, we can say:
a day's work (um trabalho de um dia) - day= tempo
a two weeks' vacation (férias de duas semanas) - two weeks = tempo
in a year's time (em um ano) - um ano = tempo
St. Peter's Cathedral (Catedral de São Pedro) - Peter = nome de pessoa
The moon's surface (a superfície lunar)
The Earth's atmosphere (a atmosfera da Terra)
Saturn's rings (os anéis de saturno)
a Kilo's weight of sugar (um quilo de açúcar) - medida de massa
two hundred meters' walk (uma caminhada de duzentos metros) - medida de distância
the world's highest mountains (as montanhas mais altas do mundo)
Brazil's foreign debt (a dívida externa brasileira)
The company's staff (o quadro de funcionários da empresa)
The Army's traditions (as tradições do Exército)
4) Nouns ending in -s or whose plural is with -s: adds only '(apostrophe).
The princess' title (o título da princesa)
The workers' tools (as ferramentas dos trabalhadores)
The soldiers' victory (a vitória dos soldados)
The girls' uniforms (os uniformes das garotas)
5) Whose plural nouns not ending in -s: adds up 's
The children's imagination (a imaginação das crianças)
women's toilet (banheiro feminino)
The mice's nest (o ninho de camundongos)
6) Names or surnames ending in-s: adds up 's or just '.
Mr Jones' house ou Mr Jones's house (a casa do sr. Jones)
Mrs Williams' children ou Mrs Williams's children
(os filhos da sra. Williams)
Myriah Cummings' letters ou Myriah Cummings's letters
(as cartas de Myriah Cummings)
- Charles, Dennis, Francis, Lurdes, Marcos, Thomas, etc.
7) With names recognizably historical, classical or biblical ending in-s: it is more common to estructure noun + of + noun but can also be used the apostrophe '.
The teachings of Jesus ou Jesus' teachings (os ensinamentos de Jesus)
The laws of Moses ou Moses' laws (as leis de Moisés)
The Book of Jeremias ou Jeremias' Book (o Livro de Jeremias)
(Euripedes, Archimedes, Hercules, Brahms, Getúlio Vargas, Villa-Lobos, Tiradentes, etc.)
8) When there is more than one core possessing something in common: it's just added to the last of the cores.
Charles and Diana's wedding (O casamento de Charles e Diana) - um casamento de duas pessoas.
Sally and Susan's car (o carro de Sally e de Susan) - um carro só pertencente às duas.
9) When there is more than one core possessing something in common: it's just added to the last of the cores.
men's and women's clothes (roupas de homens e roupas de mulheres)
Bob's and Jane's parents (os pais de Bob ≠ os pais de Jane)
Nicole's and Janna's voices (a voz de Nicole ≠ a voz de Janna).
10) When the pertaining element is known or obviously, he is subtentido due to the general context in which he is and is not going to admit, then, the use of a genitive case not followed any noun. This regrinha is worth for shops, doctor's offices, hotels, hospitals, churches, residences, marks, since they are known, obvious or subtended in the context.
I was at my grandma's when you called. - grandma's house - [Eu estava na (casa de) minha avó quando você ligou.]
My mother went to Macy's. - Macy's store - (Minha mãe foi a [loja] Macy.)
He visited Saint Peter's in Rome. - Saint Peter's Church - [Ele visitou a (Igreja de) São Pedro em Roma.]
I'm going to the doctor's next week. - doctor's office - [Vou ao (consultório) médico semana que vem]
11) When the owner is a compound noun, be he with or without hyphen, it is added 's to the end of the word.
my sister-in-law's family (a família da minha cunhada)
the maidservant's room (o quarto da empregada)
your stepson's grades (as notas do seu enteado)
12) Genitive double: it is when we have the structure pertaining noun + of + owner + 's.
a) Robert is a friend of my father's who is very funny. (Robert é um amigo do meu pai que é muito engraçado.)
She is an acquaintance of my boyfriend's. (Ela é uma conhecida do meu namorado.)A relative of John's invites us to his birthday party. (Um parente de John nos convidou para a festa de aniversário dele.)
13) In some idiomatic expressions and coloquialismos the genitive case 's will be going to appear.
For goodness' sake!/ For heaven's sake! (Pelo amor de Deus!)
For charity's sake! (por caridade)
athlete's foot (frieira)
at his wit's end (completamente desorientado)
Right in the bull's eyes! (Na mosca!)
For donkey's years! (faz séculos!)
a donkey: Observe bem que uma das
características dasexpressões idiomáticas é que elas não têm significado correspondente ao significado literal de cada uma de suas palavras constituintes.
Se fôssemos levar ao pé da letra "For donkeys years", teríamos, traduzindo para o português, "Pelos anos do burro" (!), o que não faz sentido algum. Tenha em mente, portanto, que esses idiomatismos apresentam sentido figurado ou metafórico, tanto no Inglês, como no português.
Relações estabelecidas pelo caso genitivo - Relations established by the genitive case:
The possessive / genitive thing establishes different relations between the Nucleus (the element "owner") and the Modifier (the "pertaining" element), among them:
1. Possession relation:
Frankie's English Dictionary (o dicionário de Inglês do Frankie)
My mother's clothes (as roupas da minha mãe)
2. Relation of kinship
Rachel's husband (o marido da Raquel)
Mary's brother-in-law (o cunhado da Mary)
3. Relation of origin
Paul's e-mail (o e-mail de Paul)
Hollywood's actors (atores de Hollywood)
4. descriptive relationship
a women's school (uma escola de garotas)
the doctor's degree (o grau de doutor)
5. Part-whole relationship
the athlete's legs (as pernas do atleta)
the hotel's lobby (o saguão do hotel)
6. Measure Value
the plank's width (a largura da prancha)
the ship's length (a extensão do navio)
THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON TEXT 08
LESSON 29 – INTERPRETATION OF TEXT 08
It was Monday evening. Tim Perkins was a taking his leave of Mrs. Harlowe, who taught him the’ cello . She was a kindly woman, a little neurotic, and it distressed her to see him worried. He was quite the best pupil that Carne school had sent her, and she liked him. “You played terribly today, Tim,” she said as she wished him good-bye at the door. “Quite terribly. You needn’t tell me” “You’ve only got one more term and you still haven’t passed your exams, and you’re worried. We won’t practice next Monday, if you don’t want to, just come and we’ll play some records.”
“Yes, Mrs.Harlowe. “He strapped his music-case on to the carrier of his bicycle.
“Lights working, Tim?”
“Yes, Mrs. Harlowe.”
“Well don’t try to beat the record tonight, Tim. You’ve plenty of time. Remember the lane’s still quite slippery from the snow.”
Perkins said nothing. He pushed the bicycle on to the path and started towards the gate.
“Haven’t you forgotten something,Tim?”
“Sorry, Mrs. Harlowe.
He turned and shook hands with her in the doorway. She always insisted on that.
“Look Tim, what’s the matter? Have you done something silly? You can tell me, can’t you?”
Perkins hesitated, then said,
“It’s just exams, Mrs. Harlowe.”
“Are your parents all right. No trouble at home?”
“No, Mrs. Harlowe, they’re fine.” Again he hesitated , then said,
“Good-night, Mrs. Harlowe.”
She watched him close the gate behind him. He would be in Carne in a quarter of an hour; it was downhill all the way.
Usually he loved the ride home. It was the best moment of the week. But tonight he didn’t notice it. He rode fast as he always did and hardly saw the rabbits running away from the beam of his lamp.
He would have to tell somebody. He should have told Mrs. Harlowe; he wished he had. She’d know what to do.
He could tell Truebody – yes that’s who he’d tell. He’d go to Miss Truebody tonight after evening surgery and he’d tell her the truth. His father would never get over it, of course, because it meant failure and perhaps disgrace. It meant not getting to college at the end of next term.
He was coming to the steepest part of the hill. The hedge stopped on one side and there was a marvelous view of Sawley Castle againdt the night sky, like a backcloth for “Macbeth”. He loved acting.
He learnt forward over the handlebars and allowed himself to gather speed to go through the shallow stream at the bottom of the hill. The cold air bit into his face, and for a moment he almost forgot. Suddenly he braked; felt the bike slide wildly beneath him.
Something was wrong; there was a light ahead and a familiar voice calling him urgently across the darkness.
The next morning they found him half in the ditch, his bike besides him. Dead.
1. Mrs. Harlowe was upset because
a) she was neurotic.
b) Tim had to go home.
c) Tim was very anxious.
d) she couldn’t teach him the’cello.
2. What was Tim going to do next Monday?
a) Pass his exams.
b) Play the cello badly.
c) Have a cello lesson.
d) See Mrs. Harlowe.
3. How did Tim carry his music-case?
a) Strapped to his wrist.
b) Fastened to the front of his bicycle.
c) Fastened to the back of his bicycle.
d) Fastened to the side of his bicycle.
4. Mrs. Harlowe told Tim to ride slowly because
a) he wasn’t in a hurry.
b) the roads were icy.
c) he was carrying some records.
d) His lights weren’t working.
5. Why didn’t Tim reply immediately to Mrs. Harlowe’s questions?
a) He was thinking about his parents.
b) He was worried about shaking hands with her.
c) He was uncertain whether to tell her something.
d) He didn’t want to talk to her.
6. Tim was unaware of his surroundings going home because
a) he was preoccupied.
b) he was going too fast.
c) he was in a narrow lane.
d) he couldn’t see in the dark.
7. What would be the result of Tim telling Miss Truebody the truth?
a) His father would die.
b) His family would lose all their money.
c) He would fail his exams.
d) He would be unable to go to University.
8. Where did Tim see the castle?
a) At the theatre.
b) At the end of the hedge.
c) Opposite the end of the hedge.
d) In the sky.
9. What did Tim almost forget at the bottom of the hill?
a) To use his brakes.
b) The icy air on his face.
10. From the information given in the story, it is probably that Tim died because
a) he commited suicide.
b) he fell off his bike.
c) he was drowned in the stream.
d) a light flashed in the eyes and he couldn’t see.
THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON REVIEW OF EXERCISES 3-3
THOUGHT OF THE WEEK 51:
"The best friend is the one that makes us better than we are."
<< Rui Barbosa >>
ANSWERS OF THE EXERCISES OF THE LESSON 29 INTERPRETATION OF TEXTS 08
LESSON 30 – EXERCISES OF REVIEW 3-3
A) Which answer is correct?
1) Which answer to the following question is wrong: Whose book is it?
a) It's mine.
b) It's my book.
c) It's my.
2) Which sentence is wrong?
a) He lives in Australia.
b) I life in Asia.
c) We live in Africa.
3) Who's the boss of a tennis match?
4) Which is wrong?
a) in the bus
b) in the picture
c) in the street
5) Which sentence is wrong?
a) I play handball in the afternoon.
b) I play in the afternoon handball.
c) In the afternoon I play handball.
6) Which number is spelled wrongly?
7) Which sentence is correct?
a) My mother works half-time at Burger King.
b) My mother works part-time at Burger King.
c) My mother works spare time at Burger King.
8) Which of the following modals doesn't have a short form?
b) may not
c) need not
9) Which is wrong?
a) a English book
b)a good book
c) a useful book
10) Which is wrong?
a) Charles' book
b) Peter's book
c) the boys' room
11) Which meat comes from a pig?
12) Which sentence is wrong?
a) I often play football on Sundays.
b) I play often football on Sundays.
c) Often I play football on Sundays.
13) Which is wrong?
a) the Alps
b) the Oxford Street
c) the United States of America
14) Which sentence is correct?
a) I didn't get some apples.
b) I haven't got any time.
c) There's any milk in the fridge.
15) What is the answer to this question: Have you seen her?
a) Yes, I did.
b) Yes, I have.
c) Yes, I saw.
B) Which answer is correct?
1) Which sentence is correct?
a) I'm rather short at money.
c) I'm rather short of money.
d) I'm rather short on money.
2) When a package is easily broken, what do you write on it?
a) Handle with care.
b) Hold with care.
c) Touch with care.
3) Which sentence is wrong?
a) The police is coming.
b) Where are my glasses?
c) Your new trousers are nice.
4) Which sentence is correct?
a) I look forward at seeing you soon.
b) I look forward for seeing you soon.
c) I look forward to seeing you soon.
5) Which two words sound the same?
a) feat, feet
b) fit, feed
c) fit, feet
6) Which sentence is correct?
a) She is always complaining about her father.
b) She is always complaining of her father.
c) She is always complaining to her father
7) What do you call a person who you can trust and depend on at all times?
8) What is the name for everything that is taught in a school?
9) Which of the following words is American English?
10) Which sentence is correct?
a) The policeman made me open the suitcase.
b) The policeman made me opening the suitcase.
c) The policeman made me to open the suitcase.
11) Which sentence is correct?
a) Albert Einstein was a great physician.
b) In my meaning rats are nice animals.
c) The Nile is the longest river in the world.
12) Which of the following words is British English?
13) What do Australians mean when they talk about a bickie?
a) a car
b) a dollar
c) a house
14) What is the opposite of now?
15) Which is wrong?
a) to make a bargain
b) to make a good job
c) to make an impression
C) Which answer is correct?
1) Which is wrong?
a) to do a favour
b) to do a journey
c) to do one's hair
2) Which is wrong?
a) apple skin
b) orange skin
c) peach skin
3) Which is wrong?
a) the consecutive year
b) the next year
c) the succeeding year
a) The woman was arrested and charged because of murder.
b) The woman was arrested and charged for murder.
c) The woman was arrested and charged with murder.
5) A woman who has never married is called a:
a) At this time tomorrow I take my driving test.
b) At this time tomorrow I will be taking my driving test.
c) At this time tomorrow I will take my driving test.
a) The rent is to be paid at advance.
b) The rent is to be paid for advance.
c) The rent is to be paid in advance.
8) Where does a porter work?
a) at the station
b) in the library
c) in the supermarket
9) Which sentence is correct?
a) I want to have a word with you before you go.
b) I want to have a word with you before you will go.
c) I want to have a word with you before you will have gone.
11) Which sentence is wrong?
a) He is very sleepable.
b) He looks sleepy.
c) He wants to sleep.
12) The back end of a ship is called:
a) the deck
b) the mast
c) the stern
13) The middle of an apple which we don't eat is called the:
14) What do you call a person who was born in Norwich?
a) a native of Norwich
b) a resident of Norwich
c) an inhabitant of Norwich
15) What is part of a flower?
a) a kernel
b) a nib
c) a stem
THE NEXT LESSON WILL BE
AT THE SEASIDE AND BY THE LAKE