"Who knows the truth is simply an ignorant, but one who knows and says that's a lie, this is a criminal."
LESSON 16 – TEXT 14
There are many ways to read a text. With an English text you must mount your reading strategy and choose which reading technique best suits your purpose.
To understand a text and can correctly answer the questions posed by the examiners you can choose between techniques fast reading - leitura rápida - or intensive reading - leitura mais detalhada.
Fast Reading Techniques:
a) skimming: Quick reading of the text to get the main idea or main ideas. Use this technique, for example, if you have not much time left to read a text more deeply.
b) scanning: quick reading in search of a specific idea. as a
scanner makes a text you want to copy, you should select a specific information and her focus.
Intensive Reading Skills
c) intensive reading: should be used with more complex texts, in order to understand it more detail. Using this technique you will be looking for:
c.1) stated ideas: when the examiner formulates a question that will fit you seek ideas clearly expressed by the author of the text. The following statements are common:
The author affirms / states / says that, It’s clearly expressed / mentioned in the text
c.2) implied ideas: when the examiner formulates a question for you to get the idea (s) Suggested (s) by the author of the text. Attention to statements of the kind:
The author suggests / implies that / It’s implicit that
c.3) inferred ideas: when the examiner wants you to draw your own conclusion to arrive at the best answer. In this case the information, the subject-matter proposal is not expressed in the text. Attention to the following statements and similar:
You / We may infer / conclude that, Although it’s not clearly stated in the text one may conclude / infer that
Read the text below, then choose the best option to answer
questions 1 thru 5.
IS PAYMENT OF TAXES VOLUNTARY?
In the US, some individuals argue that they are not required to pay federal taxes because the payment of federal taxes is voluntary. Proponents of this position assert that the American system of taxation is based upon voluntary assessment and payment. However, what does the law say about it?
The requirement to pay taxes is not voluntary and is clearly set forth in section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, which imposes a tax on the taxable income of individuals, estates, and trusts as determined by the tables set forth in that section. Furthermore, the obligation to pay tax is described in section 6151, which requires taxpayers to submit payment with their tax returns.
Failure to pay taxes could subject the noncomplying individual to criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment, as well as civil penalties.
1. In paragraph 1, the text refers to individuals who …
a) are in charge of validating state laws.
b) volunteer to pay their taxes.
c) have failed to pay federal levies.
d) argue against the compulsory tax payment.
e) assess and charge federal taxes.
2. Section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code …
a) sets the voluntary payment of taxes.
b) establishes the requirement to pay taxes.
c) regulates the impact of fiscal adjustment.
d) addresses the issue of budget expenditures.
e) concerns the social security deficit.
3. According to the author, sanctions for non-compliance …
a) might be approved of.
b) must soon be set.
c) should be devised.
d) may be established.
e) have been set.
4. The text …
a) refers to state taxes.
b) concerns taxation issues.
c) concerns the social system.
d) sets economic criteria.
e) refers to retirement benefits.
5. According to the text, …
a) federal taxes are refundable.
b) paying levies is voluntary.
c) criminal penalties are illegal.
d) American states must enforce fiscal laws.
e) taxpayers have fiscal obligations.
Surely you realize that it is the same text already parsed the end of class when demonstrative highlight: the search for true
cognates, function words, content words, and grammar essentials.
Before you ask: 'Does Prof. Paulo has no other text to introduce ourselves', will soon propose another question?
what reading strategies and techniques you used to answer
the multiple-choice questions drawn?
Then not only tell you which option is correct, but also suggest how you should have done your approach. (nice word that).
ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONS 1 THRU 5
It is always good, or almost always, do a quick read of the issues and options formulated even before making the reading of the text itself.
Question 1 best answer: (D)
Suppose this were the last text of proof and you were left with no time to make a detailed reading. Suffice you do scanning of paragraph 1 and seek the information collected by the examiner: that some individuals in the U.S. argue that they are not required to pay federal taxes since such payment is voluntary, which is to say that these individuals argue against compulsory aspect of paying taxes.
Question 2 best answer: (B)
The mention of Section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code is the second paragraph. Another question that could be answered after performing the scanning of paragraph 2. The mentioned code establishes the obligation of paying taxes.
Question 3 best answer: (E)
At the end of the course we talked about the non-prefix [the prefixes English how antonyms, eg, non-smoking = não fumante]. If you could understand the fragment ‘sanctions for non-compliance (=sanções pelo não cumprimento) then it might come to the conclusion that such sanctions have been established, have been set. Without going into detail about the modal verbs (might, may, should, must), translated only other options: in (a), perhaps they will be approved and in (b), is almost certain to be established soon, in (c) must be designed, in (d), perhaps to be established.
Question 4 best answer: (B)
The text concerns tax matters. This is the kind of question that requires the candidate to the intensive reading. You need to read it in detail to understand that it refers to state taxes, or refers to a social system, neither shall establish economic criteria, and also does not refer to retirement benefits.
Question 4 best answer: (E)
‘According to the text, …’ According to the text (or the author) are formulations of the examiner stated that almost forces us to intensive reading. Note that the various options made us play ping-pong ball from one paragraph to another. It's up to you to pick what the author says or suggests to get the best response. In it, it says, federal taxes are refundable, b, payment of levies (another English word for tributo) is voluntary - option that contradicts the core idea advocated by the author, in c, absurdly, has criminal penalties are illegal (?!?!?), in d, reads that states must require compliance with the laws tax.
MARCADORES DO DISCURSO
Once again, the previous text will serve me as a liaison to the next attraction: I'm absolutely convinced (Epa! not had someone famous who recently declared to be increasingly convinced of his innocence? Hum, nevermind.) - I I am convinced that readers familiar with the discourse markers read a text more fluently.
From the text ‘IS PAYMENT OF TAXES VOLUNTARY?’
“However, what does the law say about it?” (1st pr)
Contudo, o que a lei diz a respeito disso?
“Furthermore, the obligation to pay tax is described in section 6151…”
Além disso, a obrigação de pagar imposto está descrita na Seção 6151
Firstly what are the discourse markers?
In my books used to use the term transitional words or
simply transitions. Their purpose is to unite the phrases and sentences to
even mark the transition from one paragraph to another.
Just as conjunctions such as and, but, so that function as connectors between sentences in a sentence, the author draws on the transitions to link paragraphs and make your text cohesive, logical.
Study the following examples:
Estude os exemplos a seguir:
Janet speaks clearly, reads fast and writes fluently.
(the conjunction ‘and’ is used to show addition)
Janete fala claramente, lê rápido e escreve com fluência.
(a conjunção ‘and’ é usada para expressar ideia de acréscimo)
George speaks French but he does not speak Spanish.
(the conjunction ‘but’ is used to show contrast or opposition)
O George fala francês, mas não fala espanhol.
(a conjunção ‘but’ é usada para expressar ideia de contraste ou oposição)
Vivienne does not speak Portuguese, so she needs to learn it.
(the conjunction ‘so’ is used to show consequence or result)
A Vivienne não fala português, portanto precisa aprendê-lo.
(a conjunção ‘so’ é usada para expressar resultado ou consequência)
Notice how the examples are written in English Advanced Unreal own level?
However, do not underestimate the apparent banality of the statements above. If you caught my post as well, will be able to dive into the ocean of transitional words or discourse markers.
On the next page, but the important thing is that the list of the main markers of discourse and ideas expressed by them should be thoroughly studied.
Take for example the group of 'SO' and their counterparts:
Indicating outcome / result SO, accordingly, as a result, because of this, consequently, naturally, on this account, hence, for this reason, therefore, thus …
I assure you that words like hence, therefore, thus (= portanto)
appear in texts depending on their degree of formality.
Now, one thing is certain: no one learns all the words and phrases contained in the reference list overnight, from night to day. It takes a lot, but a lot of reading!
Refer to this list whenever any doubt arises as to the
meaning any of the words present there.
Take a quick read, and depart for the implementation exercise I propose shortly thereafter.
Marcadores do Discurso
Indicating addition, increased
AND, again, besides, in addition, also, further, furthermore, moreover, and then.
Indicating opposition / contrast
BUT, after all, in spite of, on the other hand, nevertheless, however, on the
contrary, yet, despite, notwithstanding, still, in contrast.
Indicating outcome / result
SO, accordingly, as a result, because of this, consequently, naturally, on this account, hence, for this reason, therefore, thus …
Indicating granting or accepting something
ALTHOUGH, after all, and yet, at the same time, granted, naturally, of course, perhaps, all the same.
Indicating the passage of time
THEN, after a short (long) time, lately, temporarily, after a while, presently, afterward, recently, thereafter, at last, since, eventually.
Indicating sequence or enumeration
FIRST, second, third, in the 1st place, in the 2nd place, then, finally, next, last.
FOR EXAMPLE, for instance, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, namely, particularly, specifically, such as , that is.
Indicating comparison or similarities
LIKEWISE, in a like manner, in the same way, similarly.
Indicando condição ou hipótese
IF, unl Indicating condition or eventess, on condition that, provided that, supposing that, whether
INDEED, in fact, as a matter of fact, actually
Indicating completion or to summarize
IN SUM, in summary, to summarize, in brief, in short, to conclude, in
conclusion, on the whole.
EXERCISE - Choose the best option to complete the sentences:
1. Greg lived in various Swiss cantons, ________ it’s no surprise to me he
can speak German, French and Italian very well.
2. __________ her tireless efforts to pass the exam, she failed miserably.
(b) In spite
(d) In view of
3. __________ the fact that she had no money with her, she couldn’t buy the tickets for the concert.
(b) Due to
(d) As a result
4. It was a well designed car; _______ it did not reach high speeds fast.
(d) in short
5. Rosa seems to be perfect for the position; _________, she’s been with us
for quite some time.
(c) as well as
(d) on the other hand
6. She was running a fever, __________ she went to the doctor’s.
7. I’ll go to Japan _______ I can get a loan at the bank to pay for the trip.
8. He appeared perfectly normal, ______________ there was something in his speech that made us suspicious.
9. There is one aspect in favor Susan; ________, she’s fluent in Spanish.
(d) even though
10. Sharon worked hard, _________ she was given a promotion at the office.
(a) such as
Try to use everything you have learned so far in our course. This time I will do the approach in the opposite.
Read the text below in order to answer questions 1 to 4:
Brazil' s economy
On Jan. 15, 2002, Brazil began its 4th year with a free-floating
currency. The move, coupled with the government’s inflation targeting system, has been a clear success. Indeed, the economy’s flexibility helped it to weather a barrage of challenges in 2001. Still, the country faces significant risks.
Even amid global weakness, the September 11 terrorist attacks on
the U.S., Argentina’s meltdown, and an energy crisis that caused power rationing, Brazil's economy appears to have grown about 2% in 2001 with 7.7% inflation. Brazil posted a trade surplus, the first since 1994, and toward the end of the year, the currency rallied strongly, although it has relinquished some of those gains in recent weeks.
1. The text deals with
a) Argentina's economic growth in 2001.
b) the current growth of the American economy.
c) the low Brazilian interest rates.
d) the energy crisis that has affected the world.
e) the Brazilian ability to overcome difficulties.
2. According to the author, Brazil
a) was able to increase its domestic spending.
b) and the USA have solved the energy crisis.
c) has allowed its currency to float.
d) could have grown about 2% in 2001.
e) and Argentina have been economic partners.
3. According to the text, the Brazilian currency has
a) been hit.
b) remained weak.
c) remained strong.
d) been changed.
e) been replaced.
4. The text indicates that the Brazilian inflation rate
a) has remained unchanged for three and half years
b) remained below 7.7% in the course of last year.
c) forms part of a government economic action plan.
d) was affected by Brazil’s 1st trade surplus since 1994.
e) survived bad weather and the crisis in Argentina.
Brazil' s Economy
On Jan. 15, 2002, Brazil began its 4th year with a free-floating currency.
The move, coupled with the government’s inflation targeting system, has been a clear success. Indeed, the economy’s flexibility helped it to weather a barrage of challenges in 2001. Still, the country faces significant risks.
Even amid global weakness, the September 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., Argentina’s meltdown, and an energy crisis that caused power rationing, Brazil's economy appears to have grown about 2% in 2001 with 7.7% inflation. Brazil posted a trade surplus, the 1st since 1994, and toward the end of the year, the currency rallied strongly, although it has relinquished some of those gains in recent weeks. (Total: 100 words)
A - KEY WORDS
I - Give a synonym in English for the word indeed (pr.1). Say also that she expressed as a marker of speech.___________________________________________________________________
II - Give a synonym in English for the word still (pr.1). Say also that this conjunction expresses as a marker of speech.___________________________________________________________________
III - Give a synonym for the word in English although (pr.2). Say also that this conjunction expresses as a marker of speech.___________________________________________________________________
B - CONTENT WORDS
Just refer to your favorite dictionary in the latter case to fill in the next table.
I call your attention to an important point. Once you have done the
skimming in search of true cognates, transparent these words can help you get to the bigger meaning of word clusters, groups of larger words. Take the case of inflation targeting system, where inflation (=inflação) and system (=sistema) are quite transparent. If you can get to content word ‘target’ (=alvo, meta) able to get to the translation: sistemas de metas para inflação.
GLOSSARY CONTENT WORDS/TRANSLATION
inflation targeting system
has been a clear success
the economy’s flexibility
weather a barrage of challenges
amid global weakness
caused power rationing
posted a trade surplus
toward the end of the year
the currency rallied strongly
Copy the text above 3 examples of verbs in the past simple (if
there is a need to do a quick review at the end of this lesson in grammar essentials.
Copy the text preceding two examples of verbs in present perfect
THE SUFFIX -LY
From the text ‘Brazil’s Economy:
“ …the currency rallied strongly”
In the previous lecture said that I would venture to say that the suffix -ed was the most frequent in English, however, the suffix -ly, which normally
corresponds to termination -mente in Portuguese, is also famous.
Adjectives Adverbs Translation
rapid rapidly rapidamente
virtual virtually praticamente
wide widely amplamente
unfortunate unfortunately infelizmente
general generally geralmente
Caution: Many words ending in-ly are adjectives. Here are some
a lovely girl uma garota adorável
a lively party uma festa animada
a lonely journey uma viagem solitária
a deadly germ um germe mortal
Add other words here with this same training when they find them in their readings.
THE SUFFIXES –MENT // -ION
From the text ‘Brazil’s economy:
“The move, coupled with the government’s inflation targeting system, has been a clear success…”
THE SUFFIX –MENT
a) This suffix is added to verbs to form nouns:
THE SUFFIX –ION
b) It adds this suffix also verbs to form nouns:inflate inflation
Complete the sentences by adding either the suffixes –ment or
–(t)ion) to the verbs in brackets.
1. That is one of the ........................ of the course at the Institute. [require]
2. She showed some poems of her own ........................ [create]
3. With just a few …………..……… your plan might be adopted. [adjust]
4. Those eye drops cause the ....................... of your pupils. [dilate]
5. That’s just one of the old Prime Minister’s controversial ..........................
VERB TENSES – A SUMMARY
RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS
3.1 PAST SIMPLE
We use the expressions walk fast (=caminhar rápido), where the verb walk is regular and ‘sleep late (=dormir tarde) with irregular verb sleep.
I / You / He / She / It / We / They walked fast // slept late
NB As you notice, there is only one form of the regular verb, walked, and a form of the irregular verb: slept. Remember: unfortunately forms the past and past participle of irregular verbs must be memorized. See supplementary material to this class.
Did I / You / He / She / It / We / They walk fast // sleet late?
NB Attention because the auxiliary 'did' will indicate that the question is formulated in the past. The main verb returns the basic form (walk, sleeep)
NB: Atenção pois ao auxiliar ‘did’ segue-se a partícula negativa ‘not’ que indicará a forma negativa. O verbo principal retorna à forma básica (walk, sleeep) Did not =didn’t
3.2 USES OF THE PAST SIMPLE
Used to express an action que happened at a definite time in the past.
Oftentimes, adverbs or phrases such as yesterday, two weeks ago, last
year, ..., are present.
Usado para expressar uma ação que aconteceu num tempo definido no passado. Frequentemente, advérbios ou expressões como ontem, duas
semanas atrás, ano passado ... estão presentes.
I met her two years ago.
Eu a encontrei há dois anos atrás.
My brother didn’t get a job last month.
Meu irmão não conseguiu um emprego no mês passado.
Did you see Spielberg’s latest film last Sunday?
Você viu o ultimo filmo do Spielberg no sábado passado?
Jack arrived ten minutes late today.
O Jack chegou dez minutos atrasado hoje.
Milton worked at KNY for thirty five years. He retired last year.
Milton trabalhou na KNY por 35 anos. Aposentou-se no ano passado.
Did they say that you were fired?
Eles disseram que você estava demitido?
Use the appropriate past forms of the verbs in parentheses.
First he ___________ (1 – poison) his favorite dog Wolf. Then, he
_____________ (2- take) his new wife to his private quarters and __________ (3 - sit) down on a sofa beside her. Before them __________ (4-be) a coffee table on which __________ (5 – be) a vase of roses, a small bottle of poison and his automatic pistol. He ____________ (6 - use, negative) the gun. Instead he _____________ (7 – swallow) the poison, and as he ____________ (8 – struggle) for air, his wife ___________ ( 9 – shoot) him in the left temple with her own weapon. Then she __________ (10 – poison) herself. That is how Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun ____________ (11 – die) in Berlin in 1945. (From Time, February 10, 1973)
Choose the better alternative in brackets:
1. [a) Beside / b) Besides] the guitar, do you play any other instrument?
2. I feel so tired after the long walk that I can [a) hard / b) hardly] move.
3. [a) Allow / b) Let] me to introduce you to my cousin Vera.
4. Norton lives [a) behind / b) beyond] his means. He spends much more
money than he earns.
5. You [a) should / b) ought] to study those notes before the exam.
6. [a) Must / b) Could] you play the guitar so loud? It’s disturbing me!
7. We [a) had better / b) would rather] hurry; otherwise we’ll miss the train.
8. I don’t play soccer any more, but I [a) used to / b) am used to].
9. Ronald is not only a conscientious employee, he’s [a) too / b) also] an
understanding human being.
10. “I [a) weep / b) wept] because I had no shoes until I saw a man who had no feet. [Ancient Persian saying].
11. I bumped into an old school buddy [a) in my way / b) on my way] to work the other day.
12. John Kennedy and his brother, Robert Kennedy, were both politicians. [a) the former / b) the latter] reached the presidency, while [a) the former / b) the latter] was assassinated before he could run for president.
13. Further [a) economical / b) economic] measures had to be taken by the
government in order to implement the Real Plan.
14. Hand in your résumé. I [a) advise / b) advice] you to apply for that job.
15. You must have an [a) open / b) opened] mind to deal with teenagers.
I'm sure some of you are saying : " Everything's fine , prefixes and suffixes really help me a better text reading , reviewing tenses is cool to browse the structure of the text , even confusable words is an item means saccal , ( but its importance ) now , my problem remains vocabulary . "
After more than thirty-five years of teaching , having lived ( perhaps I should say ' survived ' ) many methods ' in' and many 'out' come to the conclusion that the biggest problem of the Brazilian student who has ever reached the intermediate level of any course and stopped (for one reason or another ) was not so much the structure and grammar of English , but by lexical barrier , that's right , the ' lexical barrier ' . Respond to himself : " When I caught an article in The Economist , Time Magazine , Newsweek , the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal or any other publication top , which catch me , what catches ? It is a phrase where the author used the present simple , or even the present perfect or are content words ( jargon , richness of expression , language , etc. ) ?
I've Included some tips in each of our classes to help them in this study .
To summarize what I said : as there is no translation for this term consecrated prefer to continue using the same word in English . The subtitle of my book Practicing collocations had to be ' How to make your vocabulary more fluent ' in view of the difficulty of translation. It Ground clear that , by definition, it is the study of multi- item chunks of words ( ie , blocks of words ) , consecrated by native speakers .
On one hand it is true that the primary purpose of knowing
collocations is used in the production written and oral , on the other hand me seems obvious that when my task is to recognize the greatest number of words in a text to allow your mind, the more blocks of words I have at my disposal , but I'll have to depend on the painstaking study of single words .
A story illustrative absolutely true that I happened once : when a student bumped into the meaning of ' insight ' . He had consulted a pocket dictionary and obtained only: insight = compreensão, discernimento - which does not do any good to write a sentence. Consult a dictionary of collocations and English-English dictionary in class.
We found that several verbs could be combined with ‘insight’. have, gain, show an insight todos equivalendo a (= ter um ‘insight’, um ‘estalo’). Também vários adjetivos podem ser usados diante da palavra ‘insight’ (a fresh insight =um novo insight), a vivid insight (um claro insight), etc. Após o substantivo insight normalmente usa-se a preposição ‘into’. No final meu aluno foi capaz de escrever a seguinte frase na sua composição:
“That article showed me a fresh insight into the study of the subject.”
Aquele artigo deu-me um insight sobre o estudo da matéria.
If you say , to suit me all this?
I repeat what I have said in other lessons . I can no longer look
English text without seeking collocations . Already disliked listinhas of single words to memorize, so now even less . I still think that even in the case of reading texts with a view to responding Reading comprehension questions only if I am familiar with a block of words , more or less , the words that are filed by the author between a verb and a noun , eg or between a verb and an adverb , not They will confuse my understanding that block lexicon , cohesive and logical .
See, does not mean that one can not study individual words .
Sometimes, it should be . As is the case of false cognates . Even in the case of confusable words study the pairs or trios , words is more effective.
Therefore , try to study phrases and expressions preferentially isolated words . So you do not fit in the lesson of the proverb ' of the I say , but not as I do ' see how you proposed to study the vocabulary of the text on the Brazilian economy after the search of true cognates :
collocations or not , only cohesive blocks of words .
free-floating currency, inflation targeting system, a clear success,
the economy’s flexibility, weather a barrage of challenges, amid
global weakness, Argentina’s meltdown, power rationing, trade
surplus, toward the end of the year, the currency rallied strongly,
To do the following exercises , called cloze , with ' z ' it, you should read each of the mini - texts carefully. Filling the gaps often be linked to collocational field of words , sometimes it will be a requirement grammatical or structural . Can occur where more than one word matches the word immediately before or after : there will be common sense to determine the logical sequence of text that should determine your choice .
The clozes are excellent for consolidating specific vocabulary , grammatical topics for study that can prepare yourself if you want to review some points of their study . Choose a mini - text which appear several verbs in the simple present , or where there are several examples of discourse markers , etc. . Take two copies and use liquid paper - broker text - to delete the selected words . You can test whenever you want as that subject you have chosen .
Complete with the words of the frame, but remember that it must complete text of both the structural point of view
as lexical .
Mini-text : A Hundred Years Strong celebration supply encounter capacity synonymous registered manufacturer true
The year 2004 marks the century of a historical ___________ (1) between Charles Rolls and Henry Royce, in Manchester. From this meeting, one of the world leaders engineering and one of the best well known ___________ (2) marks was born: Rolls-Royce.
The ___________ (3) of this anniversary was shared by Rolls-Royce plc -
world leader within the gas engines aerospacial civil sector; defense, maritime and energy systems areas and Rolls-Royce Motors Limited.
From the beginning, the name Rolls-Royce has been ___________ (4)
with integrity, reliability and innovation. Starting as a car ___________ (5) the company has developed its engineering ___________ (6) to create motors for both air and sea propulsion, as well as applications in energy. The visionary memorandum of the companies’ association, launched in 1906, refers to its objective to ___________ (7) energy and vehicles "to be used in land, water or air". A hundred years later, both companies have made their founders’ dreams come __________ (8), with their future standing upon a century of innovation.
(Excerpt from Britain Brasil magazine, September / October, 2004, p. 7)
ANSWERS // RESPOSTAS
EXERCISE - TRANSITIONS
1. Greg lived in various Swiss cantons, thus it’s no surprise to me he can
speak German, French and Italian very well.
O Greg viveu em vários Cantões Suíços, portanto não me surpreende que
ele saiba falar alemão, francês e italiano muito bem.
2. Despite her tireless efforts to pass the exam, she failed miserably.
Apesar de seus incansáveis esforços para passar na prova, ela fracassou
3. Due to the fact that she had no money with her, she couldn’t buy the
tickets for the concert.
Devido ao fato de não ter nenhum dinheiro com ela, não pôde comprar os
ingressos para o concerto.
4. It was a well designed car; however, it did not reach high speeds fast.
Era um carro com um belo design, entretanto, não alcançava altas
5. Rosa seems to be perfect for the position; furthermore, she’s been with
us for quite some time.
A Rosa parece perfeita para o cargo; além disso, está conosco há muito
6. She was running a fever, so she went to the doctor’s.
A febre dela estava aumentando. portanto foi ao médico.
7. I’ll go to Japan provided I can get a loan at the bank to pay for the trip.
Irei pro Japão se conseguir um empréstimo no banco para pagar a viagem.
8. He appeared perfectly normal, yet there was something in his speech that
made us suspicious.
Parecia perfeitamente normal, contudo havia algo na fala dele que nos fez
9. There is one aspect in favor Susan; namely, she’s fluent in Spanish.
Há um aspecto a favor de Susan; a saber, ela é fluente em espanhol.
10. Sharon worked hard, hence she was given a promotion at the office.
Sharon trabalhou arduamente, portanto, foi promovida no escritório.
1. best answer (E): The author speaks of 'obvious success' when
respect to currency float freely coupled to plan the government's inflation targets. In the letter, it reads: Argentina's economic growth in 2001, when the text speaks in failure (meltdown) of the Argentine economy, b, reads 'the current growth of the U.S. economy', when the text mentions the impact suffered by the U.S. to the terrorist attacks of September 11, in C, reads 'the low interest rates in Brazil' (I wish!), and d, reads the energy crisis that affected world, when the text speaks only in Brazilian energy crisis.
2. best answer (C ): As mentioned above the author declares
Brazil enters the fourth year with its currency float freely. In the letter, it reads: Brazil was able to increase their domestic spending, b, reads: Brazil and the U.S. resolved its energy crises, in d, read: that Brazil could have grown about 2% in 2001 and finally in and read that Brazil and Argentina you been economic partners.
3. best answer (A): According to the text of the Brazilian currency was
achieved. Attention to the word 'rally' (rv) is one of English verbs that reflects a fall in the index, quote etc. with consequent resumption, there could be said that the Brazilian currency was affected, b, remained weak, in c, remained strong, in d, was changed, in and was replaced.
4. best answer (C): As already mentioned in question 1, there is an exchange
Floating and a policy of inflation targeting as part of a plan
government. In it, it is not correct to say that the inflation rate has remained unchanged for three years and a half, b, is not spoken in the text have remained below (= below) of 7.7%, in d, it is not said in the text that the inflation rate was affected by the first trade surplus since 1994, in and reads survived the bad times and the crisis in Argentina.
Verb Tenses (s/ Brazil’s Economy)
1. Any three of the following: Brazil began its 4th year // the
economy’s flexibility helped it… // an energy crisis that caused power
rationing // Brazil posted a trade surplus // the currency rallied strongly …
2. The following two: The move, …, has been a clear success // it has
relinquished some of those gains in recent weeks…
I - indeed (pr.1) = in fact, in reality // expressa ênfase
II - still (pr.1) = however, yet, expressa oposição, contraste.
III - although (pr.2).= though e expressa contraste
free-floating currency moeda livremente flutuante
inflation targeting system sistema de metas inflacionárias
has been a clear success foi um evidente sucesso
the economy’s flexibility a flexibilidade da economia
weather a barrage of challenges vencer uma barreira de desafios
amid global weakness em meio à fragilidade global
Argentina’s meltdown o colapso, o fracasso argentino
caused power rationing provocou o racionamento de energia
posted a trade surplus apresentou um superávit comercial
toward the end of the year mais para o fim do ano
the currency rallied strongly a moeda teve uma forte retomada
relinquished gains deixou escapar alguns ganhos
The suffixes –ment or –(t)ion
1. [requirements] Este é um dos requisitos do curso lá no Instituto.
2. [creation] Ela mostrou-me alguns poemas de sua criação.
3. [adjustments] Com apenas alguns ajustes seu plano poderia ser adotado.
4. [dilation] Aquelas gotas do colírio causarão a dilatação de suas pupilas.
5. [statements] Essa é só uma das afirmações controversas do velho Primeiro Ministro,
First he poisoned his favorite dog Wolf. Then, he took his new wife to his private quarters and sat down on a sofa beside her. Before them was a coffee table on which were a vase of roses, a small bottle of poison and his automatic pistol. He didn’t use the gun. Instead he swallowed the poison, and as he struggled for air, his wife shot him in the left temple with her own weapon. Then she poisoned herself. That is how Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun died in Berlin in 1945. (From Time, February 10, 1973)
1. Besides the guitar =Além do violão // Beside (or by the side of = ao
2. I can hardly move = Mal posso me mover
3. Allow me to introduce = Permita-me apresentar (NB: You say let
4. He lives beyond his means =Vive além de suas posses
5. You ought to study = You should study =Você deve, é aconselhável
que você estude. (NB: Pode-se usar a particular to depois do modal ought)
6. Must you play it so loud? (Você tem que tocá-la tão alto?
7. We had better hurry =É bom nos apressarmos
NB: ‘Would rather’ expressa preferência.
8. I used to play soccer (=costumava jogar futebol)
9. He’s also an understanding man or He’s an understanding man, too.
10. I wept because … weep(wept, wept) [i.v] significa chorar.
11. on my way to work = a caminho do trabalho // in my way =
obstruindo a passagem.
12. the former =o 1°de dois a ser citado; the latter = o 2° a ser citado.
13. economic measures = medidas econômicas (relativas à ciência
14. I advise (r.v) (=Eu aconselho) // My advice ( Meu conselho (n.)
15. to have an open mind (= ter a mente aberta) but I have opened the
door (Abri a porta)
Vocabulary Practice (Collocations) Mini-text: 100 Years Strong
1. (historical) encounter
2. registered (marks)
3. celebration (of anniversary)
4. (synonymous) (with integrity )
5. (car) manufacturer
6. (engineering) capacity
7. supply energy
8. (dreams came) true
IRREGULAR VERBS- REFERENCE LIST
Next you find two lists of the principal irregular verbs in English.The
first, alternating missing forms of the past tense and past participle for you to practice orally. I suggest you never write on this first list. The second, the complete one, is for reference.
A seguir, você tem duas listas dos principais verbos irregulares ingleses. A primeira, com lacunas alternadas do passado simples e do particípio passado para você praticar oralmente. (Sugestão: nunca escreva nela!) A outra, a completa, é para sua referência.
INFINITIVE PAST TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE
beat beat .............
begin ............. begun
bind bound .............
bite ............... bitten
blow blew .............
break ............... broken
bring brought ..............
build .............. built
buy bought ...............
catch ............. caught
choose chose .............
do ............. done
drink drank .............
drive ............. driven
eat ate .............
fall ............. fallen
feel felt .............
find ............. found
fly flew .............
forget ............. forgotten
get got .............
give ............. given
go went ……….
have ……… had
hear heard .............
hide ............. hidden
keep kept .............
know ............. known
lead led .............
leave ............. left
lose lost .............
make ............. made
meet met .............
pay ............. paid
ride rode .............
run ............. run
say said .............
see ............. seen
sell sold .............
send ............. sent
sing sang .............
sink ............. sunk
sit sat .............
speak ............. spoken
spend spent .............
stand ............. stood
steal stole .............
strive ............. striven
swim swam .............
take ............. taken
teach taught .............
tear ............. torn
tell told .............
think ............. thought
throw threw .............
understand ............. understood
wear wore .............
INFINITIVE PAST TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE TRANSLATION
beat beat beaten bater
begin began begun começar
bind bound bound atar
bite bit bitten morder
blow blew blown soprar
break broke broken quebrar
bring brought brought trazer
build built built construir
buy bought bought comprar
catch caught caught agarrar, pegar
choose chose chosen escolher
do did done fazer
drink drank drunk beber
drive drove driven dirigir
eat ate eaten comer
fall fell fallen cair
feel felt felt sentir
find found found achar, encontrar
fly flew flown voar
forget forgot forgotten esquecer
get got gotten conseguir (*)
give gave given dar
go went gone ir
have had had ter
hear heard heard ouvir
hide hid hidden esconder
keep kept kept manter, guardaar
know knew known saber, conecer
lead led led conduzir, liderar
leave left left deixar, partir
(*) I tried to use the most common translation of these verbs but many of
them have numerous other meanings. Watch out for the context!
Procurei usar a tradução mais comum destes verbos, porém muitos deles têm numerosos outros significados. Cuidado com o contexto!
INFINITIVE PAST TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE TRANSLATION
lose lost lost perder
make made made fazer
meet met met encontrar, reunir-se
pay paid paid pagar
ride rode ridden andar (a cavalo, de trem,...)
run ran run correr
say said said dizer
see saw seen ver
sell sold sold vender
send sent sent enviar
sing sang sung cantar
sink sank sunk afundar
sit sat sat sentar
speak spoke spoken falar
spend spent spent gastar
stand stood stood ficar de pé, suportar
steal stole stolen furtar
strive strove striven esforçar-se
swim swam swum nadar
take took taken tomar, pegar (*)
teach taught taught ensinar
tear tore torn rasgar
tell told told contar
think thought thought pensar
throw threw thrown jogar, arremeçar
understand understood understood entender
wear wore worn vestir
[Add other examples]: (To add other items you)
_______ _______ _______ _____________
_______ _______ _______ _____________
_______ _______ _______ _____________
Evaluate whether the following objectives of this lesson were achieved.
Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientização para:
I – Reading Strategy (II): Discourse Markers
Estratégia de Leitura (II): Marcadores do discurso
II – Study of text: ‘Is payment of taxes Voluntary?’ Multiple –choice questions
Estudo do texto: “O pagamento de tributos é voluntário/” Questões de múltipla-escolha
III– Reading techniques: fast / intensive
Técnicas de leitura: rápida e detalhada
IV – Study of text: ’Brazil’s Economy’ Multiple –choice questions
Estudo do texto: “A Economia do Brasil’ Questões de múltipla-escolha
V - The study of Word Forms (Prefixes and Suffixes) // The precious suffixes: -LY // -MENT // -TION
O Estudo da Formação de Palavras (Prefixos e Sufixos) : Os preciosos sufixos –ly / -ment / -tion.
VI – Grammar Essentials: Summary of Verb Tenses: past simple
Gramática Essencial: Resumo dos Tempos Verbais : passado simples
VII – Vocabulary Build-up: Confusable Words (I)
Construção de Vocabulário: Palavras que confundem (I)
A Word about Collocation / mini-text: 100 Years Strong
Uma palavra sobre Collocation / mini-texto : Forte há 100 Anos
VIII – Appendix: Irregular Verb Forms
Apêndice: Formas dos verbos Irregulares.
NEXT LESSON WILL REVIEW OF DETERMINANTS
LESSON 17 – REVIEW OF QUANTIFIERS
DETERMINANTES - QUANTIFIERS
Quantifiers expressions are used to indicate and provide information regarding the amount of something.
Some and Any
1. Some and any indefinite adjectives are used when you can not use a / an, ie, with countless and plural nouns.
Some: algum, alguns, alguma, algumas; um pouco de
Any: algum, alguns, alguma, algumas; qualquer; nenhum, nehuma
The mother gave her baby some milk.
(A mãe deu um pouco de leite ao filho.)
2. Some is used basically in affirmative sentences, while any is used in questions (but not all) or negative sentences:
I bought some cheese, but I didn't buy any bread.
(Comprei um pouco de queijo, mas não comprei pão nenhum.)
You don't have any chance.
(Você não tem chance alguma.)
I'm going to the post office. I need some stamps.
(Vou aos correios. Preciso de alguns selos.)
Are there any books here?
(Há alguns livros aqui?)
We made some mistakes.
(Cometemos alguns erros.)
Is there any ice in the fridge?
(Há gelo na geladeira?)
By the way, do you have any money on you this morning?
(A propósito, você tem algum dinheiro com você esta manhã?)
I'm going to buy some clothes.
(Vou comprar algumas roupas.)
Do you have any doubt?
(Você tem alguma dúvida?)
He got some bad grades.
(Ele tirou algumas notas ruins.)
There aren't any good beaches here.
(Não há praias boas aqui.)
I didn't buy any fruit.
(Não comprei fruta nenhuma.)
3. Some questions is used only when it is an offer or request, or when we expect the answer is yes:
Would you like some coffee?
(Você gostaria de um pouco de café?)
I'm thirsty. Can I have some water, please?
(Estou com sede. Você pode me dar um pouco de água, por favor?)
A. Can you lend me some money?
(Você pode me emprestar algum dinheiro?)
B. Sure. How much do you need?
(Claro. De quanto você precisa?)
Would you like some cookies?
(Você aceitaria alguns biscoitos?)
4. Any is used in affirmative sentences when:
- Appear after the conjuções Whether and if:
If you have any doubt, ask me. (Se você tiver alguma dúvida, pergunte-me.)
- mean qualquer:
Take any book you need.
(Pegue qualquer livro que precisar.)
Any book about cells will explain mitosis.
(Qualquer livro sobre células explicará mitose.)
- any negative sense of the word in the sentence, as seldom, never, rarely, without, hardly,barely, scarcely, little, etc.:
He left without any money.
(Ele saiu sem dinheiro algum.)
He rarely has any free time.
(Raramente ele tem algum tempo livre.)
We seldom see any flower in their garden.
(Quase nunca vemos alguma flor no jardim deles.)
My mother never buys any soft drink at the supermarket.
(Minha mãe nunca compra refrigerante algum no supermercado.)
5. Some and any without substantive:
I didn't take any photographs, but Martha took some. (= some photographs)
(Não tirei nenhuma fotografia, mas Martha tirou.)
You can have some coffee, but I don't want any. (= any coffee)
(Você pode tomar um pouco de café, mas eu não quero.)
I've bought some chocolate. Would you like some? (= some chocolate)
(Comprei chocolate. Você gostaria de um pouco?)
Where is your luggage? I haven't got any. (= any luggage)
(Onde está sua bagagem? Não trouxe nenhuma.)
Are there any biscuits? Yes, there are some in the jar. (= some biscuits)
(Há alguns biscoitos? Sim, há alguns no pote.)
6. Some and any podem ser adjectives and pronouns:
I want some apples. (Function of some: adjetivo)
I want some. (Function of some: pronome indefinido)
I don't want any apples. (Function of any: adjetivo)
I don't want any. (Function of any: pronome indefinido)
CAUTION: The compounds of some and any are: something, anything (objects); someone, anyone, somebody, anybody (people); somewhere, anywhere (everywhere). Are used in the same types of prayers that some and any.
No and None
It uses no (= adjective; nenhum, nenhuma) and none (= pronome; nenhum, nenhuma) With verbs in the affirmative to give a negative meaning to the phrase:
1. In is always followed by a noun and is equivalent to a prayer with any negative. Thus, the verb is always used in the affirmative:
I have no idea where my glasses are.
(Não tenho ideia de onde estejam meus óculos.)
He had no energy and couldn't concentrate.
(Ele não tinha energia e não conseguiu se concentrar.)
We have no money to buy a new car.
(Não temos dinheiro para comprar um carro novo.)
2. No ... = not any or not a:
There are no cars in the parking lot. (= There aren't any cars ...)
(Não há carros no estacionamento.)
It is a nice house, but there is no garden. (= ... there isn't a garden.)
(É uma casa muito bonita, mas não tem jardim.)
There is no milk in the fridge.
(There isn't any milk in the fridge.)
(Não há leite na geladeira.)
NOTE: negative verb + any = positive verb + no:
They haven't got any children. or They've got no children.
(not They haven't got no children.)
There isn't any sugar in your coffee. or There's no sugar in your coffee.
2. None equals not one and is also used alone or with the preposition of + noun. The agreement with the verb can be singular or plural:
None of my students speak Japanese.
(Nenhum dos meus alunos fala Japonês.)
Time? I have none!
(Tempo? Não tenho nenhum!)
A. Is there no bread left?
(Não tem pão?)
B. No, there is none.
(Não, não tem.)
Sandra bought two books, but I bought none.
(Sandra comprou dois livros, mas eu não comprei nenhum.)
None of the boys went to the mountains with me. I went by myself.
(Nenhum dos meninos foi às montanhas comigo. Eu fui sozinho.)
1 - In the works only as an adjective and therefore should always be followed by
I have no money in the bank.
(Não tenho dinheiro nenhum no banco.)
A. Do you have any eggs?
(Você tem alguns ovos?)
B. No, I have no eggs.
(Não, não tenho ovo nenhum.)
2 - None works only as a pronoun and is not followed by a noun, as its function is to replace it:
A. Do you speak any language besides yours?
(Você fala alguma língua além da sua?)
B. Unfortunately, none. (= no language)
A. Do you have any book on Zoology?
(Você tem algum livro sobre Zoologia?)
B. No, I have none.
(Não, não tenho nenhum.)
3 – The expression none of (nenhum de) may be followed by:
- Object pronoun:
None of us said that.
(Nenhum de nós disse isso.)
- THE + plural noun:
She wrote none of the letters.
(Ela não escreveu nenhuma das cartas.)
- + Possessive plural noun:
I saw none of his friends.
(Não vi nenhum dos amigos dele.)
None of her children entered the college.
(Nenhum dos filhos dela entrou na faculdade.)
4 - Remember that the English default admits only one negative particle for prayer:
I did not do anything yesterday. / I did nothing yesterday.
(Não fiz nada ontem.)
We will not say that to anybody. / We will say that to nobody.
(Não diremos isso a ninguém.)
There isn't anything in the fridge. / There is nothing in the fridge.
(Não há nada na geladeira.)
I have no money in my wallet. / I don't have any money in my wallet.
(Não tenho dinheiro nenhum em minha carteira.)
A lot (of), Many, Much, (A) Little, (A) few, Plenty (of)
1. A lot of / lots of / plenty of are expressions that mean muito / muita / muitos / muitas. Can be used with countable and uncountable nouns.
Are commonly used in affirmative sentences.
Observe the following examples:
She drinks a lot of water.
(Ela bebe muita água.)
Sandra has a lot of talent for music.
(Sandra tem muito talento para música.)
There are a lot of fruits in the basket.
(Há muitas frutas na cesta.)
I have a lot of things to do.
(Tenho um monte de coisas para fazer.)
There are lots of cars here.
(Há muitos carros aqui.)
We don't need to hurry. We have a plenty of time.
(Não precisamos nos apressar. Temos bastante tempo.)
He had plenty of opportunities.
(Ele teve muitas oportunidades.)
She has lots of friends.
(Ela tem muitos amigos.)
There are plenty of time.
(Há tempo de sobra.)
2. Much (muito, muita) and little (pouco, pouca) são usados com substantivos incontáveis. Much generally not used in affirmative sentences and little the interrogative, being replaced by a lot of, lots of (coloquial),plenty of ou a great deal of (followed by a singular noun). Note:
We don't have much time. Hurry up or we'll miss the show. (negative)
(Nós não temos muito tempo. Apresse-se ou perderemos o "show".)
Sara didn't spend much time cleaning the house. (negative)
(Sara não gastou muito tempo limpando a casa.)
Sara spent a lot of time cleaning the house. (affirmative)
(Sara gastou muito tempo limpando a casa.)
They brought lots of soft drinks and sandwiches with them. (affirmative)
(Eles trouxeram muitos refrigerantes e sanduíches com eles.)
Did Sara spend much / a lot of time cleaning the house? (interrogative)
(A Sara gastou muito tempo limpando a casa?)
Sara says Richard has a great deal of talent for drawing.
(Sara diz que Ricardo tem muito talento para desenho.)
Mary has little patience with her children.
(Mary tem pouca paciência com os filhos.)
There is little water in the jug.
(Há pouca água na jarra.)
It's the end of the month. He has little money left.
(É final de mês. Ele tem pouco dinheiro sobrando.)
3. Many (muitos, muitas) and few (poucos, poucas) Are used with countable nouns in the plural:
Does he have many friends?
(Ele tem muitos amigos?)
Many animals do not eat meat.
(Muitos animais não comem carne.)
There are many students in my class.
(Há muitos alunos na minha sala de aula.)
I don't have many problems. I guess I'm a lucky man.
(Não tenho muitos problemas. Acho que sou um homem de sorte.)
They have many children. I think there are 10 in total!
(Eles têm muitos filhos. Acho que são 10 no total!)
My sister has few good grades.
(Minha irmã tem poucas notas boas.)
Few people know him.
(Poucas pessoas o conhecem.)
There are few parks in my neighborhood.
(Há poucos parques no meu bairro.)
I invited few friends to my party because my house is very small.
(Convidei poucos amigos para a minha festa porque minha casa é muito pequena.)
NOTE: In colloquial language, in affirmative sentences, many is usually replaced by a lot of ou lots of or even, by plenty of.
She has many friends.
(Ela tem muitos amigos.)
She has a lot of friends.
He had many dictionaries to help him do his homework.
(Ele tinha muitos dicionários [dicionários de sobra] para ajudá-lo a fazer a tarefa escolar.)
He had plenty of dictionaries to help him do his homework. (colloquial)
Many students went to the library.
(Muitos alunos foram à biblioteca.)Lots of students went to the library.
Nothing prevents you choose many, but sounds a bit more formal.
4. A little (um pouco) is used with uncountable nouns / a few (alguns) substantivoscontáveis is used. Both have positive meaning (= some):
My brother has a few CDs.
(Meu irmão tem alguns CDs.)
Judith didn't spend all her money. She has a little money left.
(Judite não gastou todo o dinheiro dela. Ela tem um pouco de dinheiro.)
I have a few friends in São Paulo.
(Eu tenho alguns amigos em São Paulo.)
A little patience doesn't hurt anybody.
(Um pouco de paciência não faz mal a ninguém.)
1) Pay attention to the difference between few and a few. Note that some few equals. Both one and the other came with plural nouns.
Few people visited him in hospital.
(Poucas pessoas o visitaram no hospital.)
Could you give me a few more details?
(Você poderia me dar mais alguns detalhes?)
Very few students learn Latin nowadays.
(Bem poucos alunos aprendem Latim hoje em dia.)
The letter came a few days ago.
(A carta chegou há alguns dias.)
2) Atente, agora, para a diferença entre little e a little, que são usados no singular. Aqui, alittle, além de equivaler a some, também significa um pouco de.
We have little time to act.
(Tempos pouco tempo para agir.)
I have a little money in my savings account.
(Tenho um pouco de / algum dinheiro em minha poupança.)
Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before 2010.
(Os cientistas têm pouca esperança de encontrar uma cura completa para o câncer antes de 2010.)
I've only read a little of the book so far.
(Até agora só li um pouco do livro.)
I understood little of what he said.
(Entendi pouco do que ele disse.)
Can we leave a little early?
(Podemos sair um pouco mais cedo?)
NEXT LESSON WILL BE ON
TECHNICAL READING TECHNICAL ENGLISH 03
"The bee is honey in the mouth has a sting in the tail."