Curiosities of the English language


pauloviana2012 (51)

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 Bread German Wickbold Fitness - uses of "fitness" for those who need to keep the English in order


If you ask what it means fitness, most students will respond that this English word means boa forma, boa condição física. This translation is correct, of course, but she is not alone. See other meanings of fitness now that have nothing to do with fitness. Follow me.


In English, the noun form means good fitness, fitness, fitness, capacity, convenience or opportunity.


a) He is at the peak of fitness.

(Ele está em plena forma física.)


b) She doubted his fitness to drive.

(Ela duvidava da capacidade dele de dirigir.)


c) I have to question the fitness of wearing a red dress to a funeral.

(Tenho que perguntar sobre a conveniência de usar vestido vermelho num funeral.)


What does this mean “fitness center”?

In English, fitness center (or fitness center in British English) means ginásio, centro de manutenção. And what is the difference between the gym (academia) and a fitness center? The academy is more focused on body building in train heavy. Already the fitness center is more focused on fitness.


Fitness Center – Centro de Manutenção


More useful expressions with “fitness

The fitness of things – a conveniência das coisas

Physical fitness – boa forma, saúde


Chicle Ball Buzzy Croc - uses of "buzzy" leaving English classes more exciting


Although it is well known, the English word buzzy is not easily found in dictionaries. This is because it is still labeled as slang. But this is changing slowly. Recently, for example, found in two buzzy reputable dictionaries and now want to share what it means buzzy English with you. Follow me.


In English, the adjective buzzy means tonto (que dá sensação de embriaguez), emocionante, estimulante, excitante (local ou situação) ou empolgante as in There’s always a buzzy atmosphere in the restaurant (Há sempre uma atmosfera empolgante no restaurante). His comparative degree is buzzier, and his superlative is buzziest.


The whisky made you feel quite buzzy.

O uísque fez você se sentir bem tonto.


A cognate of “buzzy”

Buzzy comes buzz, that can be noun or verb. As a noun, buzz means zumbido, sussurro, rumor or forte sentimento de prazer or excitação as in Flying gives me a real buzz (Voar me dá uma forte sensação de prazer.) Already the verb to buzz means zumbir ou sussurrar as in I can hear somebody buzzing (Posso ouvir alguém sussurrando).


Bullets Hello Kitty Strawberry - uses of "kitty" for those who bet all the chips in the study of English


If you want to know how to eat without having Hello Kitty mouth, I do not know the answer. But, I know what it means kitty answer in English. Want to know it? So, follow me.


In English, kitty (plural kitties) it means gatinho (animal de estimação), aposta (quantia que se aposta, principalmente no póquer) ou vaquinha (dinheiro recolhido entre pessoas, para um determinado fim).



a) Darling, feed the kitty.

(Querida, alimente o gatinho.)


b) How much money is there left in the kitty?

(Quanto dinheiro resta lá na aposta?)


c) The three friends kept a kitty for buying food.

(Os três amigos mantinham uma vaquinha para comprar alimento.)


A girl named “Kitty

In English, Kitty is also the nickname given to girls loving call Catherine or Katherine. Kitty is still used to name pet kittens (gatinhos de estimação).


Sundown Suntan Oil - uses of "sundown" in English that promote the decline of competition


Surely you've seen thousands of commercial tanning oils Sundown. Have you checked which means sundown in English? Yet? So now learn interesting things that revolve around sundown. Follow me.


In English,  sundown it means pôr-do-sol as in The sundown will be at seven o´clock today (Hoje o pôr-do-sol será às sete).


Synonymous with "sundown"

In Portuguese, some synonyms sunsets are sol-pôr, sol-posto, ocaso, poente. In English, o pôr do sol can also be called sunset.


I love to watch the sunset.

Adoro assistir ao pôr do sol.


The origin of “sundown”

Sundown Junction has sun (sol) + down (para baixo, abaixo).



Describing problems with clothes and shoes in english


Almost always hear the housewives husbands and children complaining that their clothes are too simple, too heavy, too strung, too expensive, blah-blah-blah too. You know to pass such complaints to the English language? For example, as they say too much or too wide decked in English? If you do not know, learn how to describe problems with clothes and shoes in English now. Follow me.


Clothing Problems

Problemas com Vestuário


It’s too light/heavy – é muito leve/pesado as in:

The jacket is too heavy (A jaqueta é muito pesada).

It’s too loose (or baggy) – é muito folgado

It’s too tighté muito justo, apertado



The pants are too tight.

A calça é muito apertada.


It’s too high/lowé muito alto/baixo as in:

 The heels are too low (O salto é muito baixo).

It’s too plain/fancyé muito simples/enfeitado as in:

 The blouse is too fancy (A blusa é muito enfeitada).

It’s too narrow/wideé muito estreito/largo as in:

 The tie is too wide (A gravata é muito larga).

It’s too small/bigé muito pequeno/grande as in:

My shoes are too big (Meus sapatos são grandes demais).

The zipper is brokeno zíper está quebrado

A button is missingfalta um botão

It’s ripped / tornestá rasgado

It’s stainedestá manchado

It’s unravelingestá desfiando

It’s too expensiveé muito caro


The pullover is unraveling.

O pulôver está se desfiando.





pauloviana2012 (51)

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 Bala Sweet Jelly Bee - uses "sweet" to sweeten their English language



Surely, you know that sweet means doce because of the famous English phrase Home sweet home (lar doce lar). But you know what the expression means have a sweet tooth English? If you do not know, learn all about sweet now. Follow me.


In English, sweet can be noun or adjective. As a noun,  sweet means coisa doce, doçura, doce, sobremesa; querida ou amor (forma de tratamento carinhosa). In the plural, sweets means coisa agradável, bombom or doce.


a) Do you have a bag of sweets?

(Você tem um pacote de doces?)


b) I haven’t made a sweet today.

(Não fiz sobremesa hoje.)


As na adjectif, sweet means doce, amável, encantador, cativante, puro, fresco, melodioso, harmonioso ou odorífero. As slang, sweet means apaixonado; excelente or ótimo.


a) Buy sweet water and sweet milk.

(Compre água (doce) e leite fresco.)


b) This wine is too sweet for me.

(Este vinho é adocicado demais para mim.)


c) Romeo is mighty sweet on Juliet.

(Romeo está muito apaixonado por Julieta.)


d) Free tickets? Sweet!

(Tíquetes grátis? Excelente!)



What means “have a sweet tooth”?

In English, have a sweet tooth means gostar de doces as in I have a sweet tooth, and if I don’t watch it, I’ll really get fat (Gosto de doces e, se eu não prestar atenção nisso, vou engordar muito


Do you have a sweet tooth?

Você gosta de doce?


More interesting expressions with “sweet

In your own sweet time – de acordo com sua própria vontade.

Sweet corn cake – pamonha

Sweet potato – batata doce



The Chaos of  English Pronunciation – 800 irregularities in the pronunciation of English words


Already in the first basic English classes, the student realizes that the double letter and phoneme does not follow a regular pattern in the English language. He notices right away that I do /ai du/ does not rhyme with I go /ai gou/; nor she does /xi das/ does rhyme with she goes /xi gous/. The student will note that double GH are not pronounced in night /nait/, but they sound F laugh /lef/ and have sound G in ghost /goust/. This irregularity in pronunciation makes life difficult for those who speak English as their mother tongue and further complicates the lives of those who study English as a second language. Thinking about the teacher, traveler and Dutch writer Gerard Nolst Trenité (1870-1946) wrote the poem The Chaos (O Caos), which highlights some eight hundred irregularities in the pronunciation of English words. Want to know these irregularities? Just read the poem below. Follow me.


The Chaos of English Pronunciation


“The Chaos”


Dearest creature in creation

Studying English pronunciation,

I will teach you in my verse

Sounds like corpse, corps, horse and worse.

I will keep you, Susy, busy,

Make your head with heat grow dizzy.

Tear in eye, your dress will tear,

So shall I – Oh, hear my prayer –

Pray, console your loving poet,

Make my coat look new, dear, sew it!

Just compare heart, beard and heard,

Dies and diet, lord and word,

Sword and sward, retain and Britain

(Mind the latter, how it’s written).

Say said, pay paid, laid but plaid.

Made has not the sound of bade,

Now I surely will not plague you

With such words as vague and ague.

But be careful how you speak:

Say break and steak, but bleak and streak.


Previous, precious, fuchsia, via,

Pipe, snipe, recipe and choir,

Cloven, oven, how and low,

Script, receipt, shoe, poem, toe.

Hear me say, devoid of trickery:

Daughter, laughter and Terpsichore,

Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,

Exiles, similes, reviles,

Wholly, holly, signal, signing,

Thames, examining, combining,

Scholar, vicar and cigar,

Solar, mica, war and far.


From desire, desirable, admirable from admire,

Lumber, plumber, bier but brier.

Chatham, brougham, renown but known,

Knowledge, done, but gone and tone.

One, anemone, Balmoral,

Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel.

Gertrude, German, wind and mind,

Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

Tortoise, turquoise, chamois-leather,


Reading, reading, heathen, heather.

This phonetic labyrinth

Gives moss, gross, brook, brooch, ninth and plinth.


Billet does not sound like ballet,

Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet,

Blood and flood are not like food,

Nor is mould like should and would.


Banquet gives no clue to parquet,

Which is said to rhyme with darky.

Viscous, Viscount, load and broad,

Toward, to forward, to reward.

Your pronunciation’s okay,

When you say correctly: croquet.


Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,

Friend and fiend, alive and live,

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,

Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.

We say hallowed but allowed,

People, leopard, towed but vowed.

Mark the difference, moreover,

’Twixt mover, plover and then Dover.

Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,

Chalice, but police and lice.


Camel, constable, unstable,

Principle, disciple, lapel, label.

Petal, penal and canal,

Wait, surmise, plait, promise, pal.

Suit, suite, ruin, circuit, conduit,

Rhyme with ‘shirk it’ and ‘beyond it’.

But it’s very hard to tell,

Why it’s pall, mall, but Pall Mall.

Muscle, muscular, gaol, iron,

Timber, climber, bullion, lion.


Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,

Senator, spectator, mayor.

Ivy, privy, famous, clamour,

And enamour rhyme with hammer.

Pussy, hussy and possess,

Desert, dessert and address.

Golf, wolf, countenance, lieutenants,

Hoist, in lieu of flags, left pennants.

River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,

Doll and roll and some and home.


Stranger does not rhyme with anger,

Neither does devour with clangour.

Soul but foul and gaunt but aunt,

Font, front, won’t, want, grand and grant.

Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,

Then say singer, ginger, linger.

Real and zeal, mauve, gauze and gauge,

Marriage, foliage, mirage and age.

Query does not rhyme with very,

Nor does fury sound like bury.

Dost, lost, post, doth, cloth and loth,

Job, job, blossom, bosom, oath.

Though the difference seems little,

We say actual but victual.


Seat and sweat, chaste, past and caste.

Leigh and eight and freight and height,

Put but nut, granite and unite.

Reefer does not rhyme with deafer,

Feoffer does, and zephyr, heifer.

Dull, bull, Geoffrey, George ate late,

Hint, pint, Senate but sedate.

Scenic, phrenic, and Pacific,

Science, conscience, scientific.

Tour but our, and succour, four,

Core provides a rhyme for door.


Gas, alas, and pass and was

(Dickens started off as Boz).

Sea, idea, guinea, area,

Psalm and charm, Maria, malaria.

Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean,

Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

Compare alien and Italian,


Dandelion and battalion.

Sally and ally, yea and ye,

Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, key, quay.

Say aver but ever, fever,

Neither, leisure, skein, receiver.


Never guess, it is not safe,

We say calves, valves, half but Ralph.

Hero, heron, granary, canary,

Crevice and device and eyrie.

Face but preface and efface,

Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.

Large, but target, gin, give, verging,

Ought, out, joust and scour but scourging.

Ear but earn, and wear and tear,

Do not rhyme with here but there.

Seven is right but so is even,

Hyphen, roughen, nephew, Stephen.

Monkey, donkey, clerk and jerk,

Asp, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.


Pronunciation – think of psyche! –

Is appaling, stout and spikey.

Won’t it make you lose your wits,

Writing ‘groats’ and saying ‘grits’?

It’s a dark abyss or tunnel,

Strewn with stones, like rowlock, gunwale.

Islington and Isle of Wight,

Housewife, verdict and indict.

Aren’t you mixed up, reader, rather,

Saying lather, bather, father?

Finally: what rhymes with ‘tough’?

Though, through, plough, cough, hough? Enough!

Hiccough has the sound of ‘cup’,

My advice is: “Give it up!”


Surprisingly, the poem ends giving advice: Give it up! (Desista!). The advice that I give you, however, is: when meeting new English words, see your pronunciation dictionaries. Do not be "creating" pronunciations for words that you know.



Lustra Mobile Worker Floral - usage of "worker" in English for students nosy



Probably, you know, in English, worker has anything to do with the verb to work (trabalhar). But, I doubt you know that insect is called worker in English. Do you know? If you do not know, learn all about worker now. Follow me.


In Englisg, worker means abelha/formiga obreira, operário or trabalhador as in The factory is planning to hire 200 workers (A fábrica está planejando contratar duzentos trabalhadores).


The worker forages for food and cares for the larvae.

A obreira faz incursão por comida e cuida das larvas.


What means “social worker”?

In English, social worker means assistente social as in She retired in 1994 as a social worker (Ela se aposentou em 1994 como assistente social).


More useful expressions with “worker

Worker priest – sacerdote, obreiro

Research worker – investigador

The workers – os trabalhadores, as classes operárias

To be a hard worker – trabalhar muito, dedicar-se muito ao trabalho



Extra Strong Coffee Charm - uses "charm" for whom charm is time to learn English



The English word charm is dangerous for Brazilian students because most of them always translates  charm as charme. In many contexts, however, charm has nothing to do with charme. Do you want to see? Follow me.


In English, charm  can be noun or verb. As a noun, charm  means charme, encanto, feitiço, atrativos, fetiche, encantamento, sortilégio or amuleto.



a) She wears a lucky charm.

(Ela usa um amuleto da sorte.)


b) The witch recited a charm.

(A bruxa recitou um encanto.)


Nazar is a charm used to ward off the evil eye.

Olho Turco é um amuleto usado para afastar o mau-olhado.


As verb, charm means encantar, fascinar, cativar, seduzir, persuadir or dar prazer a.


a) My brother charms everyone he meets.

(Meu irmão cativa todos que ele encontra.)


b) I’m sure you’ll be able to charm him into taking you.

(Estou certo de que você será capaz de persuadi-lo a levar você.)



Expressions with “charm


Charm price – preço psicológico

Charm along – produzir como por magia

Charm away – fazer desaparecer, tornar invisível

Work like a charm – funcionar com muito sucesso, como por encanto


pauloviana2012 (51)

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 As they say “quatro-olhos” (apelido) in English?



Brazilian Portuguese, quatro-olhos is a humorous nickname given to people who wear glasses. English, four-eyes means quatro-olhos as in Hey, four-eyes, betcha you can’t see this! (Oh, quatro-olhos, aposto que você não pode ver isso!). Os dicionários alertam que four-eyes é um termo desrespeitoso, ofensivo.

The campus bullies were beat up by the four-eyes.

Os valentões do campus foram agredidos pelos quatro-olhos.



Animal Cracker St. Hedwig - uses of "animal" who let their english animal


In Brazilian Portuguese, the word _ does not always refer to animals. When we say, for example, that a colleague has an English animal, we mean that your English is sensacional, espetacular. Sometimes we call a person from animal to indicate that it is brutish, cruel, inhuman. Also in English, the word animal does not always refer to the vermin. Want to see it? Follow me.


In English, animal can be noun or adjective. As a noun, animal means animal, bicho, besta, bruto, brutamontes ou pessoa brutal



a) He was accused of cruelty to animals.

(Ele foi acusado de crueldade com animais.)


b) That man is an animal!

(Aquele homem é um brutamontes!)


c) Stop picking your nose, animal.

(Pare de tirar meleca/catota do nariz, seu animal.)


As an adjective, animal means animal, sensual ou carnal.



a) Try to cut down on the amount of animal fats you eat.

(Tente reduzir a quantidade de gordura animal que você come.)


b) When he was drunk, he showed his animal side.

(Quando ficou bêbado, ele mostrou seu lado animal.)


c) Romeo and Juliet couldn’t deny the animal attraction between them.

(Romeu e Julieta não podiam negar a atração carnal entre eles.)



What does this mean “party animal”?

In american English, party animal means festeiro (pessoa que gosta de ir a muitas festas).


She says he’s not always a party animal.

Ela diz que ele nem sempre é festeiro.


More useful expressions with animal:


Animal kingdom – reino animal

Animal rightsdireito dos animais de serem bem tratados.

Pack animalanimal de carga

Stuffed animalbicho de pelúcia



The Americanized English: the reaction of British English


In the nineteenth century, the British New World was going through a phase similar to the time of Queen Elizabeth I and Shakespeare. Neologisms they trampled each other in their eagerness to describe the new reality, trying to keep up with the dynamism of a society in constant motion. Many British repudiated this "expropriation" by the Americans - each Americanism was a stab in the native language. Samuel Johnson, english animal lexicographer, never missed an opportunity to lower the slats in prime d'overseas. The settlers, Johnson said, were just a bunch of criminals who should be grateful for everything that they had received from England [H. L. Mencken, The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of Inglês in the United States, Abridged Fourth Ed, New York: Knopf, 1989, p. 135]. Some British reveled in the way of American English eccentric, but almost everyone thought inadimissível the fall of treatment barriers between social classes - was, and still is, the habit of Americans to treat any woman as a lady and gentleman as any man as a gentleman.


The British did not suspect that their criticism and achincalhes gave them a picture of us pedantic and obtuse mentality, at least to American eyes. And the greater the number of British visitors in the New World is most noted ill will towards the new country. The trend of these observers was generalizing everything they saw and heard, often with the obvious intention of describing a caricature of Americans. This was precisely the attitude of the writer Charles Dickens in his visit to America. During the trip, he noted and selected regionalisms and other oddities that were later used in his book American Notes [H. L. Mencken, The American Language (abridged), p. 29].

 explanation was simple: the British thought the Americans should speak British English and when they saw that the reality was different, departed for the attack. Not occur to them that the Americans had the right, and even good reasons to use the English language in its own way, with no intention of offending anyone. As one anonymous writer asked the North American Review: "The English language is becoming woefully inadequate. How to describe the Falls Niagara fitting words for the waters that flow beneath the London Bridge, or like trying to describe the majesty of the Mississippi with invented words to speak the Thames? "[Quoted in Jounal of American History, December 1992 p. 913]. Ironically, perhaps, the English critics did not realize that their assaults on American English neologisms lent a certain respectability that helped popularize them in England [H. L. Mencken, The American Language (abridged), 1989, p. 267].


But not always the criticism went unanswered, even among those who thought inadvisable linguistic and cultural separation. In the opinion of diplomatic Thomas Jefferson: "The new circumstances in which we find ourselves require new words, new phrases and transfer of old words to new objects." The most exalted, however, saw the British as presumptuous linguistic hegemony, imperial and unacceptable - the Americans had to yield before the guardianship English and were no longer children or stepchildren. Noah Webster, American lexicographer, argued: "Our honor requires us to have a proper system, both in language and in government." And the writer Rupert Hughes asked: "Why should we accept the strange idea that our language is a mere loan of England like a copper pot that we should keep very well polished and return unscathed? "



Semente de Pimenta Bode Amarela Top Seed – learn uses of "bode" in English departs foreboding in evidence


Days ago, I found sementes de pimenta bode amarela and then I remembered that bode is also English word. You know what that means bode in English? Yet? So learn it now. Follow me.


In English, the verb bode means predizer, prenunciar, augurar (prever) ou pressagiar (prever, indicar) as in The hurricane bodes disaster for those areas in its path (O furacão pressagia desastre para as áreas em seu caminho).


They boded difficulties in preparing the budget for 2014.

Eles prenunciavam dificuldades no preparo do orçamento para 2014.


What they mean “bode well” and “bode ill”?

In English, bode well means ser de bom agouro; but bode ill means ser de mau agouro as in The fact that we haven’t heard from him for so long does not bode well (O fato de que não temos notícias dele por tanto tempo não é de bom agouro). Just to refresh your memory, agouro means predicting the future.


Bode”: past of “bide

In English, bode (or bided) is also the past tense to bide, means wait for such waiting He bode his opportunity (Ele aguardou sua oportunidade).




As they say “apertar o cinto(limitar despesas) in English?


In Portuguese, apertar o cinto mean limitar despesas, por falta de recursos ou para poupá-los. In English, tighten your belt means apertar o cinto as in My parents really had to tighten their belts after my mother retired (Meus pais realmente tiveram que apertar o cinto após minha mãe se aposentar).


I’ve had to tighten my belt since I stopped working full-time.

Tive que apertar o cinto desde que parei de trabalhar em tempo integral.


pauloviana2012 (51)

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 Ruffles Original Potato Fries - uses "ruffle" in English that creep anyone


You know the Ruffles potato is time, is not it? At some point, you have verified that the ruffle mean in English? Yet? So do it now and show your knowledge in the classroom or with friends. I bet your peers and English teachers will get goosebumps. Follow me.

In English, ruffle can be noun or verb. As a noun, ruffle means irritação, confusão, agitação, briga, desordem, perturbação, franzido, ondulação ou agitação leve (das águas).


a) The place was so quiet that the ruffle of its trash bag could be heard.

(O lugar era tão calmo que a agitação de seu saco de lixo podia ser ouvido.)


b) The ruffle gives the dress extra oomph.

(O franzido dá ao vestido um glamour extra.)


As a verb, ruffle means agitar, desmanchar, desordenar, eriçar, arrepiar, despentear, embaralhar (cartas) ou folhear (páginas) rapidamente.


a) The man ruffled/shuffled the cards.

(O homem embaralhou as cartas.)


b) The wind was ruffling the book.

(O vento estava folheando o livro.)


The bird ruffles its feathers.

O pássaro arrepia as penas.


A cognate to "ruffle"

From ruffles comes the adjective ruffled, which means irritado, alterado as in His laughter was no comfort to her ruffled nerves (O riso dele não era consolo para os nervos irritados dela).


Expressions of interest with “ruffle

Don’t ruffle your feathers!não se exalte!

Ruffle someone’s feathersirritar alguém.


The Americanized English: the expansion of English


Moving away from the Atlantic coast, the pioneer settler-losing contact with the city and its major innovations, fashions and fads of language. And so lingered old habits and old expressions, regarded as Americanisms, but in reality, terms that had been abandoned by the British. Meanwhile, it would complement your English with numerous regionalisms required and created by living on the borders.

This separation began to point to an important paradox: while the country was unified politically threatens to unravel linguistically. There was the pioneer that touch the inside, the way hillbilly, ie, the rustic, with phrases worked so unusual, said with a different pronunciation and rhythm. The differences in language were often cause for astonishment when an American frontier visited the coast or when an American traveling east from the west. With some frequency, the language of the inner ear caused irritation to urban.


The Louisiana Purchase

A Compra da Louisiana


Over time, people learned to deal with regional differences that still exist today but never resulted in linguistic separation. There was no alternative - adapting the agenda was a society that was gaining its own momentum, packed with important events, both internal and external. The euphoria own territorial expansion was fueled by games chairs policies, the intrigues and wars among the European powers. Even then the events would be indicated as the future global village - what was happening in Europe, deeply affected the lives of the living, so far, in the New World.

At certain times, the fights just benefiting European Americans. It happened when the American Revolution ended and the former colonies gained independence not only succeeded but also new territories that went up the Mississippi River. These additional regions of France had been won by England in 1763, as a result of the Seven Years' War, which involved several European countries. Result: Americans might expand to the great river with relative ease.

But beyond the Mississippi was another matter. Since the beginning of the eighteenth century, the French saw as its all a vast region that stretched between that river and the Rocky Mountains. Now, in the early nineteenth century, the territories were part of the plans of Napoleon Bonaparte to form a great empire in the New World. For him, the great valley of the Mississippi would be the barn that empire and the seat would be on the island of Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Fortunately for the Americans, things were not going well for the French emperor - the slaves of Hispaniola revolted and seized power, a new war against England was about to burst; coffers French were starving.

President Thomas Jefferson, of course, saw it all with great apprehension. For him, it became increasingly important to acquire rights over stretches along the Mississippi to ensure free navigation of American vessels. With this limited goal, the president sent a delegation to negotiate with the French emperor. What is your surprise when Napoleon offered to sell the entire territory. Upon learning of the French proposal, Jefferson accepted immediately, making sure it was one of the best buys in history. The last traded price was 60 million francs, about $ 15 million. From ruffles comes one fell swoop, Jefferson doubled the size of the United States, opened a vast territory for colonization and secured the free navigation on the Mississippi. The purchase, which occurred in 1803, became known as the Louisiana Purchase (A Compra da Louisiana).


Chocolate Twister Brigadier - uses of "twister" in English that unlock your language


Long ago, I told you all about the word twist, which appears on the can of refrigerant Pepsi Twist. Today, I want you to learn everything about twister, a relative of twist. You know what they mean twister and tongue twister in English? Do not know? So I unlock (or lock the time) your language now. Follow me.

In English, the noun twister means trapaceiro, vigarista, intrigante, mentiroso, pessoa/máquina que torce ou situação embaraçosa. In American English, twister also means ciclone, furacão, tornado ou tufão.


a) The twister destroyed homes and buildings.

(O ciclone destruiu casas e edifícios.)


b) Twister! You distort things.

(Vigarista! Você distorce as coisas.)



What does this mean “tongue twister”?

In English, tongue twister (or tongue-twister) means trava-língua, que são frases difíceis de serem ditas com rapidez.


a) Her last name is a real tongue twister.

(O último nome dela é um verdadeiro trava-língua.)


b) The name may be a tongue-twister, but the wine is great on the palate.

(O nome pode ser um trava-língua, mas o vinho tem um grande paladar.)


Examples of “tongue twister

See if you can talk briefly this tongue twister that emphasizes the S:


“She sells sea shells by the sea shore.

The shells she sells are sea shells, I’m sure.

For if she sells sea shells by the sea shore

Then I’m sure she sells sea shore shells.”


Bel Chocolatey Candy - meanings of "chocolatey" that leave your English more chocolate


When I first saw the word chocolatey, thought she was the invention of advertising and marketing. Nothing to do. Chocolatey is a good English word. You know what that means chocolatey in English? If you do not know, learn it now. Follow me.

In English, the adjective chocolatey (or chocolaty) means  achocolatado, feito de chocolate, semelhante a chocolate ou que tem forte sabor de chocolate.


a) The sauce was like chocolatey toffee.

(A cauda era como um caramelo achocolatado.)


b) There’s a chocolatey touch as well.

(Há um toque de chocolate também.)


I like chocolatey desserts

Gosto de sobremesas feitas de chocolate.



Chewing Gum Mentos Gum - meanings of "gum" in English that they do not stick gum


Days ago, when I presented you with an English vocabulary used at the dentist, I told her that gum means  gengiva. Today, I want you to know meanings of gum  that has nothing to do with gengiva. You know the meaning by the expression by gum? You know what the verb to gum? If you do not know the answers but want to learn, I recommend you read all about that gum means  now. Follow me.

In English, gum can be noun or verb. As a noun, gum means  látex, goma, resina, cola ou gengiva (in the plural generally gums). Gum also means chiclete ou goma de mascar in The United States


a) We can stick these pictures into the book with gum.

(Podemos colar estas figuras no livro com cola.)


b) Brushing regularly keeps your gums healthy.

(A escovação regular mantém as gengivas saudáveis.)


As a verb, gum means engomar, segregar látex ou colar as in The labels were gummed to the envelopes (As etiquetas foram coladas nos envelopes).


What the meanings of  “by gum”?

In British English, the idiomatic expression  by gum means  por Deus as in By gum, I think you’re right. (Por Deus, acho que você está certo). This surprised expression equals by Jove or by God (por Deus).

By gum! Here is a healthy idea to chew on

Por Deus! Aqui está uma ideia saudável para mastigar


More English expressions with “gum

Bubble gumchiclete

Chewing gum, chew-gumgoma de mascar, chiclete

Gum arabic gluecola de goma arábica

Gum downcolar em cima de


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 Pellet Snacks Bacon - uses "pellet" for you do not change the balls in English tests


Found inadequate the English word pellet in a rectangular bag of chips. And I bet you will agree with me when you know all about that word. want to see? Follow me.

In English, pellet can be noun or verb. As a noun, means pellet bala (de armas), chumbo (para armas), pedrinha de arremesso, pelota ou bolinha (de papel, pão etc.) as in The beetle was rolling a pellet of dung up the hill (O besouro estava rolando uma pelota de esterco para o topo do monte).


Duckling sitting on a pile of food pellets.

Patinho sentado sobre pilha de pelotas de alimento.

As a verb, means pellet atirar com bolinhas (de papel ou chumbo de caça), formar bolinhas ou peletizar as in Debris were pelleted by centrifugation at 13,000 r.p.m. for 10 min (Detritos foram peletizados por centrifugação a 13.000 rpm durante 10 min).


What does this mean “slug pellet”?

In English, slug pellets are iscas/bolinhas envenenadas para lesmas as in Slug pellets are not harmful to birds if used properly (Iscas para lesma não são prejudiciais a pássaros se usadas corretamente).


More expressions with “pellet

Lead pellets – bolinhas de chumbo

Aromatic pellets – bolinhas aromáticas


The English Americanised: new stages for the English


With the Louisiana Purchase, the doors were flung open and the expansion once again the English would be put to the test. The new areas have lasted since the region of Louisiana today, the Gulf of Mexico, to the present border with Canada and were so vast that resulted in ten states and contributed to the increase of four others. The effects on the English language not slow. The signs of what was to come were felt immediately when President Jefferson appointed a committee, under the command of Meriwhether Lewis, to explore new territories.


The choice of Lewis as head of the delegation is considered by some historians as odd. The commander, although having some military experience, had no knowledge of the border regions, their schooling was limited, it was not a cartographer, biologist or something, or speak any indigenous language. Anyway, it seemed to be the most qualified people for the mission. Maybe that's why he called his friend William Clark, a guy with experience border, smart and brave, but still less educated than Lewis. This aspect becomes important because it reflects the kind of English used by Lewis and Clark in their journals and reports, and names and expressions coined by them to describe animals, plants and characteristics of the territory. In all, more than a thousand new words and terms, including the names of 178 plants and 122 animals hitherto unknown. No other explorer or scientist in American history has so many names to natural objects as the leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.


Thomas Jefferson thought it would take more than a millennium to colonize and populate the immensity of the west, but of course he could not foresee the waves of European immigration in the nineteenth century, or restlessness that characterized the American era - rarely was a pioneer place too long. He came to a place and soon established a village, hoping to have made the best choice to start again. When things did not work out, he simply abandoned everything without hesitation and continued his search. Throughout the west, cities, villages and hamlets appeared, grew and disappeared with astonishing rapidity. For each Chicago and Milwaukee who avenged thousands of other "passed away." The state of Iowa, for example, in its first century of existence, had 2,205 communities that became ghost towns (cidades-fantasma)


Often the word city (cidade) was used in its name, perhaps reflecting the hopes of the settlers. At first glance, it seems pretentious to call city a hamlet with a population of only 200 or 300 inhabitants. After all, city was a term usually applied to communities of greater weight, both in population and in economic, political and cultural. But in nineteenth-century America any piece of ground could even become a city of almost overnight. So hope unrealized still survives in the name of places like Rock City, Illinois (population 286), Barnes City, Iowa (population 266), Republican City, Nebraska (population 231).

As the settlers went beyond the banks of the Mississippi, were experiencing radical changes in climate and landscape. Gradually the forests were left behind, giving way to vast prairies (pradarias) that later became the great plains (as grandes planícies ), as described in the diaries and reports of Lewis and Clark.


When using "little" and "small" in English


You know that little small and mean little English. But not always know you can use in place of little small, and vice versa? Therefore, I recommend that you learn now to use when little small and correctly. Follow me.


When using "little" and "small" in English

When using "little" and "small" in English (uma caixinha).

Already small refers simply a tamanho determinado por valor, número ou capacidade as in a small box (uma caixa pequena).


Littler or smaller?

In British English, little hardly ever comes after a verb (position of predicativo). And the comparative littler and the superlative littlest are raríssimos. It IS more common to use the comparative and the superlative of small: smaller (menor) e smallest (o menor).


a) The pet was so small. (“small” usado como predicativo após verbo “to be”)

(O animal de estimação era tão pequeno.)


b) She moved to a smaller town.

(Ela se mudou para uma cidade menor.)


c) It’s the smallest kitty I’ve ever seen.

(É o menor gatinho que eu já vi.)



Fixed expressions with “little” and “small

There are fixed expressions in which little is used of the same form like small or short (curto). Examples:

Little finger – dedo mindinho.

Little hand of a clock – ponteiro (menor) das horas.

Little known – pouco conhecido

Little while – um pouco.

Little way – caminho curto

Little by little – pouco a pouco

Some fixed expressions with small are:

Small arms – armas de pequeno calibre

Feel/Look small – sentir-se insignificante, sentir-se envergonhado

Small hours – altas horas.



Honey Bread Pan - divine and mundane uses of "pan" in English


When they find the English word pan, many students just translate it as , the god of Greek mythology. This translation is correct, of course. But, I must warn you that, in English, pan also has more mundane meanings, nothing divine. Want to see? Follow me.

In English, pan can be noun or verb. As a noun, pan means  panela, caçarola, frigideira, tacho, tina, marmita, bateia (peneira para minerar) face, rosto ou Pã (deus dos pastores).



a) Heat the milk in a small pan.

(Aqueça o leite numa panela pequena.)


b) Look at that guy! I’ve never seen such an ugly pan in my life.

(Olha pr’aquele sujeito! Nunca vi uma cara tão feia na minha vida.)


Pan is the god of shepherds and flocks.

Pã é o deus dos pastores e dos rebanhos.

As a verb, pan means  criticar, garimpar, fritar ou panoramizar (mover câmera filmadora para obter efeito panorâmico ou seguir objeto em movimento).



a) The critics panned the film version of the novel.

(Os críticos criticaram a versão cinematográfica do romance.)


b) He is panning for gold.

(Ele está garimpando ouro.)


c) In the first scene, the camera pans slowly across the room.

(Na primeira cena, a câmera fez uma panorâmica através do quarto.)


The worshipers of "pan"

The English-speaking seem to love the word pan. In their homes, for example, we find baking pan (assadeira), cake pan (forma de bolo), frying pan (frigideira), bed pan (urinol, penico), flushing pan (vaso sanitário) e dust pan (pá de lixo).


The prefix "pan"

In Portuguese and English, the prefix pan means  tudo ou todos as in  Pan-African Congress (Congresso Pan-Africano (= todos os países da África)), Pan-American Conference (Conferência Pan-Americana), Pan-European Summit (Reunião Pan-Européia).



Vigor Delicatessen Dessert - uses of "delicatessen" in English for students of refined taste


In large cities, it is easy to find the English word deli signage small business houses and elegant. You already know how to pronounce delicatessen in English? If you do not know, learn all about that word now. Follow me.

In English, delicatessen means delicatéssen, iguarias finas (petiscos, doces, guloseima ou salgados) ou casa comercial que vende iguarias finas.



a) We’re having delicatessen for dinner.

(Teremos delicatéssen no jantar.)


b) I bought some smoked sausage at the delicatessen.

(Comprei um pouco de salsicha defumada na delicatéssen.)


A delicatessen full of delicatessen.

Uma delicatéssen cheia de mercadorias finas.


Delicatessen for friends

In informal English, deli means  delicatessen as in We bought sandwiches and drinks at the deli (Compramos sanduíches e bebidas na delicatéssen).


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 Bullets Peccin Mint Mint - uses "mint" in English that cost a fortune


When I read the English mint first, wrong pronunciation. Thus: a diner, I found a mint press pack mints. So I asked the saleswoman bullets / maint /. I spoke / maint / because I already knew the sound of  IN in kind / kaind / and find / faind /. The seller, however, said that I should read mint as mint / not like / maint /. Not prolonguei the conversation. At home, I opened the dictionary. The pronunciation of the seller was correct. The dictionary also presented invaluable mint meanings that have nothing to do with mint. Want to see? Follow me.


In English, mint can be a noun, verb or adjective. As a noun, mint means hortelã, bala de hortelã, casa da moeda ou fortuna.



a) Buddy, would you give me a mint?

(Meu amigo, você me daria uma bala de hortelã?)


b) We took a tour of the mint last week.

(Fizemos um tour da casa da moeda na semana passada.)


c) They made/earned a mint of money.

(Eles fizeram uma fortuna/ganharam rios de dinheiro.)


Como verbo, mint significa cunhar, criar, inventar ou cunhar/fabricar moedas.



a) Guimaraes Rosa minted words.

(Guimarães Rosa inventou palavras.)


b) 1,000 of the special commemorative coins are being minted today.

(1.000 das moedas comemorativas especiais estão sendo cunhadas hoje.)


Como adjetivo, mint significa de hortelã, novo ou sem uso. In mint condition means em estado de novo.


a) I like mint tea.

(Gosto de chã de hortelã.)


b) A collector would pay $500 for a mint copy.

(Um colecionador pagaria $500 por uma nova cópia.)


What does this mean “Royal Mint”?

Royal Mint é a Casa da Moeda Britânica. The Royal Mint Coins wedge to the UK and to over a hundred countries. She still produces military medals and awards. The paper ballots are made by Bank of England (Banco da Inglaterra).


The old Royal Mint building

Antigo prédio da Casa da Moeda Real


What does this mean “cost a mint”?

In American English, cost a mint means custar uma nota/fortuna.


Great shoes don’t need to cost a mint.

Ótimos sapatos não têm que custar uma fortuna.


Cookie Vitarella Salt Vip - uses "salt" that end up with your dull and bland English


You and many students know that salt means sal in English. However, if I tell you that so and so is an old salt and ask what is his profession, I bet you do not know the answer. Do you know? If you do not know, mint means  broaden your horizons. In English, salt  goes far beyond salt a pinch of salt. Want to see? Follow me.

In English, salt can be a noun, verb or adjective. As a noun, salt  means sal, gosto, sabor, graça, chiste, lobo do mar ou marujo.


a) Could you pass the salt?

(Poderia passar o sal?)


b) His wit added salt to the discussion.

(A sagacidade dele acrescentou graça à discussão.)


He told me a tale worthy of an old salt.

Ele me contou uma história digna de um velho lobo do mar.


As a verb, salt means salgar, pôr sal ou apimentar (tornar discurso, dito etc. malicioso, picante).



a) Salt the stock to your taste.

(Salgue o caldo a seu gosto.)


b) He salted the lecture with anecdotes.

(Ele apimentou a palestra com anedotas.)


As an adjective, salt  means temperado com sal, conservado em sal ou salgado as in Put a pan of salt water on to boil (Ponha uma panela com água salgada para ferver).


What does this mean “rub salt in a wound”?

In English,  rub salt in the wound  means  esfregar sal na ferida ou agravar o sofrimento de alguém.


She had no intention of rubbing salt into his wounds.

Ela não teve a intenção de agravar o sofrimento dele.


More interesting expressions with “salt”:

He is not worth his salt – ele não vale o que come

Salt of the earth – pessoa excelente

Worth one’s salt – útil, bom em seu trabalho.


Vodca Absolut Ruby Red - Uses and meanings of "ruby" in English that leave students flushed


Chances are you know (or infer) that ruby means rubi in English. But, I bet you do not know how to say in English boda ruby even know who Jack Ruby was in American history. Do you know? If you do not know, do not need to be flushed with shame for not knowing these things. Just learn all about ruby in English now. Follow me.

In English, ruby can be noun or adjective. As a noun, Ruby (rubies plural) means  rubi, rubim, cor de rubi ou algo semelhante ao rubi em cor (vinho tinto, sangue etc.).



a) Ruby is a dark red precious stone.

(Rubi é uma pedra preciosa vermelho escuro.)


b) A ring set with rubies.

(Um anel com rubis.)


As an adjective,  ruby means de rubi, semelhante a rubi, vermelho-vivo ou da cor do rubi as in This wine has a ruby-red colour (Este vinho tem cor vermelho-rubi).


Ruby Gemstones – Gemas de Rubi


What does this mean “ruby wedding/anniversary”?

Ruby wedding (britânico) and ruby anniversary (americano) means bodas de rubi, que são comemoradas em casamento de quarenta anos. What does this mean ruby wedding anniversary as in Congratulations on your Ruby Wedding Anniversary! (Parabéns pelas Bodas de Rubi!).


In English, Ruby can also be a woman's name or surname. A Ruby is famous in the U.S. Jack Ruby (1911-1967), born Jack Rubenstein. On November 24, 1963,  Americans watched live on national television,  the moment when Jack Ruby killed Lee Harvey Oswald,  the man accused of murdering President Kennedy. The shot fired by Jack Ruby was picked up by the press because she was following the transfer of Lee Harvey Oswald from the police station to the local prison.


27 adjectives that end with the monotony of his English


The student knows few English words usually employs the adjective good to praise anything: good soup (boa sopa), good movie (bom filme), good friend (bom amigo) etc. This is not wrong. But vary the vocabulary is much better because it takes away the monotony of the conversation or text. So to stop this repetition of so many good, good, good,  now learn other adjectives that will take your English routine,  making it more beautiful and advanced with an air of. Ready? Follow me.


27 adjectives that end with the monotony of his English


Delicious soup – sopa deliciosa (mais expressivo do que “good soup”, não?)

Tasty soup – sopa saborosa

Exciting soap opera – novela emocionante

Entertaining soap opera – novela divertida

Absorbing soap opera – novela que prende (muito melhor do que “good soap opera”)


Absorbing text – texto que prende

Fascinating text – texto fascinante

Informative text – texto informativo


Pleasant journey – viagem aprazível

Enjoyable journey – viagem/jornada agradável


Skilful soccer player – jogador de futebol habilidoso

Talented soccer player – jogador de futebol talentoso

Fine soccer player – jogador de futebol excelente


Impressive acting – arte dramática impressionante

High-quality acting – atuação de alta qualidade


Useful advice – conselho proveitoso, útil

Helpful advice – conselho prestativo, útil


Pleasant day – dia aprazível

Perfect day – dia perfeito

Beautiful day – dia bonito


Cosy cottage – casa acolhedora

Comfortable cottage – casa confortável

Attractive cottage – casa de campo cativante


Pleasant view – vista agradável

Interesting view – vista interessante

Enjoyable view – vista aprazível


Expensive pants – calça cara

Fashionable pants – calça da moda

Smart pants – calça elegante, da moda


Kind woman – mulher bondosa

Charming woman – mulher charmosa

Interesting woman – mulher interessante


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         In function of my travel to the Amazon region, in the period of 09 to the 21st of July of 2013, on Monday on 08th of July of 2013 they will be anticipated the referring topics the lessons of grammar, curiosities, challenges and poems and poetries, too much topics will be lifted and retaken from the 22nd of July of 2013.

      Regarding the corrections of the exercises, they can keep on sending, since so what will return I will correct all in the arrival order.

          Good studies to all and use this period to revise the matter and to explore other topics that still have not if risked.

Greetings to all of Brazil.


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Paper Towel Manikraft Kith - uses of "kith" in English for those who handle easy friendship


If we ask how to say amigo in English, many students will respond friend correctly. In English, however, there are several words that mean friend. Recently, for example,  learned that buddy means  amigo. Today,  I want you to know yet another way to say friend in English: kith. Do you know this word in private? Yet? So follow me.

In English, the noun kith means amigos ou conhecidos as in There’s no escaping your kith (Não há como escapar de seus amigos).


What does this mean “kith and kin”?

In English, the idiomatic expression kith and kin means amigos e parentes as in For these kith and kin, memories of the tragedy never take a holiday (Para amigos e parentes, as memórias da tragédia nunca tiram férias).


Energizer Alkaline Battery - uses of "energizer" for those who want to be CDF in English


Chances are you know or infer that the English word energizer has something to do with energia. But if an American student told you that you are an energizer, what would be your reaction? Appreciate or leave for ignorance? Well, if you do not know what it means energizer informally, I recommend that you read this article now before taking any action. Follow me.

In English, the noun energizer means energizador, estimulante, reforçador, condensador ou amplificador.


a) I think chocolate is a sort of energizer.

(Acho que chocolate é um tipo de energizador.)


b) His words were an energizer for me.

(As palavras dele foram estimulantes para mim.)


“Energizer”, the american CDF?

The Urban Dictionary, dicionário de inglês americano informal, explains that energizer means  CDF (ou CÊ-DÊ-EFE), abreviatura vulgar de cu de ferro, que é a pessoa extremamente dedicada aos estudos. This definition,  however, does not appear in other dictionaries. In English, the CDF is commonly called grind (inglês americano) or swot (inglês britânico).


The class used to call him a swot.

A turma costumava chamá-lo de CDF.


A cognate of “energizer

Energizer comes from the verb energize, which means energizar ou estimular as in Coffee and tea energize me (Café e chá me estimulam).


Google Toilet Paper - uses "google" in English for those who like to snoop around other people's lives


Say GOOGLE is abbreviation of  Giving Opinions & Options Generously Linked Everywhere (Dar opiniões e opções generosamente conectadas por toda parte). However, the dictionaries of the English language are unaware that abbreviation. For them,  it means things google. Want to see? Follow me.


In English, google can be noun or verb. As a noun,  Google,  capitalized, é o nome fantasia do mais famoso buscador da Internet. If you do not know,  search engine is a computer program that searches for information on the Internet.


As a verb,  google means  procurar informações na Internet usando buscador (qualquer buscador) ou pesquisar informações específicas de pessoa ou empresa registradas em páginas da Internet as in We googled the new applicant to check her background (Pesquisamos no Google a nova candidata para checar sua experiência).


Do not confuse “Google” with “goggle” or “googol

In English, do not confuse google /GUgol/ with goggle /GAgol/ or googol /GUgol/. Goggle means óculos (de natação, proteção) ou esbugalhar os olhos;  googol é o número 1 seguido por 100 zeros (igual a 10¹°°).


Wear goggles – Use óculos de proteção


Etymology of “Google”

In English, in the early twentieth century,  the term was used to name a broken ball in cricket (match played between two teams of 11 players)  . In 1997, the domain was registered. In 2000,  google means  search has come to mean something in the search engine Google.


The Americanized English: British English leaving behind


As Americans advancing in the occupation of land beyond the Mississippi, innovations in English language became increasingly striking. The flexibility of the language,  without the shackles of British society,  ran loose in the new territories,  allowing juggle that left the English more than perplexed. The tools were at hand and the Americans did not hesitate to use them - feasted, adding prepositions common verbs giving them new meanings and greater emphasis on: to get away with (fazer algo errado sem sofrer as consequências), to brush off (não levar algo a sério), to hold out (resistir; oferecer), to fork over (pagar em dinheiro), to cave in (enfraquecer e desistir), to flare up (explodir de raiva), to beat up (surrar), to show off (querer aparecer; ostentar), to pass out (desmaiar). Or words created by the hundreds and gave new meanings to old words,  or abreviavam the longest words: penitentiary turned pen,  and stood huddled fanatic fan,  reformation became reform. The language also allowed them to create nouns from verbs,  what they did with the greatest abandonment: dump (descarregar material a esmo) virou também “depósito de lixo”; the verb to beat (bater) ganhou os significados adicionais de “ritmo musical” e de “ronda de guarda policial.”


But above all, Americans demonstrated passion for verbs formed from nouns. to scalp (escalpelar, arrancar o couro cabeludo), derivative of scalp (couro cabeludo) was one of the first and was already used in 1693. (The Indians were superstars this sort of thing.)   The list is huge but here are some examples, some obvious and others less so: the noun bank (banco) came the verb to bank (lidar com banco), service (serviço) gave to service (dar assistência técnica; consertar), notice (aviso) became to notice (notar, perceber), advocate (advogado) originated to advocate (advogar), engineer (engenheiro) base is to engineer (planejar; executar; dar um jeito), panic (pânico) also turned the verb to panic (apavorar; entrar em pânico) and package (pacote) expanded to become the verb to package (empacotar).


Scalp – Escalpelar


And what about the flood of idioms coming from the inside? The borders were true factories metaphors and expressions that still leave language learners in greater insecurity. A small sample already gives an idea of the problem: to make the fur fly (fazer escândalo; brigar); quick on the trigger (ter resposta pronta; ser rápido); to whitewash (explicação inócua para desculpar atos faltosos; terminar em pizza); to have an ax to grind (agir por egoismo, ressentimento); no two ways about it (sem alternativa); to fly off the handle (perder as estribeiras); conniption fit (acesso de raiva); to bark up the wrong tree (bater à porta errada; perder tempo e esforço); to keep one’s eyes peeled (ficar de olho aberto; prestar atenção); close shave (escapar por um triz); stool pigeon (criminoso que entrega comparsas; alcaguete); to have a chip on one’s shoulder (ser facilmente provocado); to pull the wool over one’s eyes (enganar); to hold your horses (ter paciência); to face the music (aguentar as consequências); to keep one’s shirt on (ter calma); to go haywire (enlouquecer); to eat crow (admitir um erro); to be out on a limb (estar numa posição arriscada).


Often the meaning of the expressions is more or less obvious eg one-horse town (literalmente, cidade de um cavalo só) that just gives the impression that it is a provincial community,  without much cultural or economic movement therefore negligible. But the term can be used with the same meaning, but not as obvious as in the one-horse business even when the business is in full Times Square in New York. Sometimes occurring words and phrases that seem to have sprung out of nowhere and, literally,  more seem to be the result of a mental breakdown: to paint the town red (pintar a cidade de vermelho, ou seja, fazer uma tremenda farra); to talk through one’s hat (falar pelo chapéu/mentir e exagerar); to take a powder (tomar um pó/escafeder-se, safar-se); fit as a fiddle (bom que nem um violino/ bem disposto, em boa forma); even steven (estar quites).


Thus,  American English British English was leaving behind, however, without changing the basic structure of the language.


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 The Americanized English: effect of cycles of colonization of the English language


The cycles of colonization of the United States clarify many doubts about American English, as each had its own characteristics. The first stage of the occupation of the territories of the "Louisiana Purchase" was not promising - with increasing altitude, rainfall became increasingly scarce and everything indicated that any type of conventional agriculture would be impossible. For a moment, colonization seemed to have lost the impetus to reach the other side of the Mississippi. But it was not, she was just a short break, a strategic stop, say. Before long, she remade, changed characters and kept pushing the boundaries, this time not through traditional colonizers but of groups engaged in specific activities.


Normally, the first to enter the new territories were hunters and fur traders, opening trails and exploring the continent. Known as mountain men, hunters prefer to live isolated, often living only with the Indians. The activity yielded well, and for some 40 years, the fur business was essential in clearing the borders. After weakening was due to changes in styles and fashions in urban centers, which resulted in the inevitable price reduction until virtually ceased to exist.

The circumstances of the time gave a certain sequence borders - as if there is sub-frontiers, often occurring almost simultaneously. Just behind the border of the mountain men, came to the border of breeders. So it was with the crossing of the Appalachian Mountains and Allegheny Mountains to the Mississippi and thus were crossing the prairies and great plains.

When the border reached the Great Plains, cattle gained importance amazing. In the vastness of the land was abundant grasslands stretching from the Rio Grande, on the border with Mexico to the border with Canada. In the three decades that followed, it was common to see the cattle out of Texas on his way to Chicago and other northern markets. But gradually, the dynamism of American society began to demand change - slaughterhouses were closer to local livestock, the railroads allowed the transportation of the product faster and cheaper. The coup de grace came in the years 1885 and 1886 when two terrible winters followed killed more than 75% of the cattle in the northern plains. Shortly after, began popping here and there fences, houses and small hamlets, ushering in a new frontier. It was the turn of the farmers, attracted by the rich soil of the valleys and prairies. And thus ended the era of the herds. But not before giving rise to legends and myths about the men who manned and left their marks, the cowboys. Even today many fans around the world try to capture a lifestyle that, in reality, nothing but a great fiction.


The mining cycle was another who helped bring down frontiers. But this was different from others. Their activities often required organization and work together, so that the cores miners soon assumed urban characteristics, attracting trade of all kinds. The big driver was the dream of getting rich quick, which made the mining, especially gold miner, a being obstinate. This dream peaked shortly after the discovery of gold in the American River in California in January 1848. This discovery sparked the great gold rush of 1849 that resulted in the largest migration of people that has news, covering greater distances and in the shortest time.


But Pathfinders borders were not just hunters, ranchers, miners and farmers. In this massive movement had missionaries, prostitutes, explorers, adventurers simple, soldiers, builders of roads, railways and canals, and of course, many speculators. Attractions borders had no limits. Imagination took care of men and women dazzled by the news, with the marvelous tales that allowed anyone dreaming of adventure, riches and perhaps romance. Traveling toward the setting sun became an obsession for many people, a kind of fever - many went to the border simply because it existed, was there, calling, with its fertile soil, abundant game and complete freedom. Little did they know that dream in reality was a myth with all the possibilities of turning nightmare.

In a society that strong boiling state, it was natural that arose numerous words and phrases that can still cause surprise to students of the language. Many will see in future articles.


Bar Fruit Woohoo! - Use of "woohoo" which leaves your English more cheerful and approved


Woohoo! You know what that is in English? Not? Then learn all about woohoo for your english be more cheerful and approved with honors. Follow me.

In English, the interjection woohoo (or woo hoo) means uhuuu as in Woohoo! It’s summer again! (Uhuuu! É verão de novo!). This word is used to express joy or approval.


Woohoo! I ran 20 miles and I’m feeling great.

Uhuuu! Corri cerca de 32 km e estou me sentindo muito bem.



Cereal Bar Kudos - uses of "kudos" in English for those who enjoy prestige and fame


Days ago, a friend asked me what mean kudos in the phrases kudos to you and thanks for the kudos. You know the answer? If you do not know, learn all about that word now. Follow me.

In English, the noun kudos means parabéns, glória, renome, prestígio, fama ou crédito.


a) The kudos of playing for such a famous team.

(A glória de jogar por uma equipe tão famosa.)


b) They acquired kudos just by appearing on television.

(Eles adquiriram fama só por aparecerem na televisão.)


Kudos to you. Thanks for the kudos.

Parabéns para você. Obrigado pelo elogio.


Kudos”: singular or plural?

Some English-speaking think Kudos is plural and therefore produce phrases like She received many kudos for her work (Ela recebeu muitos parabéns pelo trabalho dela). Kudos, however, is a singular word ending in S. So, tell Kudos is (not “are”) due her for her brilliant work (O elogio é (não “são”) por causa do brilhante trabalho dela).



Wash Clothes Ariel Power Pods - uses of "pod" in English that do not fill the bag


There are manufacturers who baptize their products with inadequate English words, words become shooting yourself in the foot. Long ago, we saw that it was a mistake to baptize a lollipop Dim Pop (pai estúpido, população burra). There are manufacturers, however, who baptize their products with proper English words. The person who chose the name Ariel Power Pods to wash clothes comes in capsules was happy in the choice. Is that in English, pod means cápsula, saco. But that's not all there. You know, for example, which pod means an aircraft ? And you know what means the idiomatic expression like two peas in a pod? If you do not know, learn all about pod now. Follow me.


In English, pod can be noun or verb. As a noun, pod means bando de animais, vagem (de leguminosa), compartimento (de aeronave), bolsa, saco ou cápsula.


a) I saw a pod of pilot whales.

(Vi um bando de baleias pilotos.)


b) Remove the peas from their pods.

(Remova as ervilhas das vagens.)


c) That aircraft has storage pod.

(Aquela aeronave possui compartimento de armazenamento.)


As a verb, pod means produzir vagens ou debulhar as in Do you know how to pod peas? (Você sabe como debulhar ervilhas?).

Like two peas in a pod

In English, like two peas in a pod means cara de um, focinho de outro (duas pessoas muito parecidas uma com a outra) as in You can tell they’re brothers at a glance. They’re like two peas in a pod. (Pode-se dizer que eles são irmãos só de olhar. Eles são cara de um, focinho de outro). In a translation to the letter, like two peas in a pod means como duas ervilhas numa vagem.


They are like two peas in a pod.

Eles são cara de um, focinho de outro.


Refrigerant Soda Antarctica - uses "soda" in English so you will never ask for soda


Today, I learned that in Brazilian Portuguese slang pedir soda means reconhecer a própria derrota, render-se. Speaking of soda, you know what they mean soda pop and cream soda in American English? If you do not know, do not ask for soda. Learn all about soda in english now. Follow me.

In English, soda meansa soda, (bi)carbonato de sódio, água gasosa ou soda limonada (misturada com sorvete).


a) Add some soda to the whisky, please.

(Adicione água gasosa ao uísque, por favor.)


b) We had an ice-cream soda.

(Tomamos soda limonada com sorvete.)



What does this mean “soda pop”?

In American English, soda pop (or soda) means refrigerante as in Give me a can of soda (Me dê uma lata de refrigerante).


What does this mean “cream soda”?

Em inglês americano, cream soda é uma bebida gaseificada de sabor baunilha. If you were a cracker manufacturer, you baptize cream soda? Send your comment.


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 Loaf Wickbold Light Bread - uses "bread" that leave your English good like bread


Long ago, I missed the fly when translating the idiomatic expression break bread as quebrar pão. You know what that phrase really means in English? Not? So, you learn all about bread today. Will even learn how to say miolo e casca de pão in English. Follow me.


In English, bread can be noun or verb. As a noun, bread means  pão, alimento, ganha-pão, cargo ou emprego.



a) The smell of fresh bread.

(O cheiro de pão fresco.)


b) This is how I earn my daily bread.

(É assim como ganho meu pão de cada dia.)


As a verb, bread means dar a comunhão (hóstia) ou panar (cobrir de pão ralado) as in She is breading the fish fillets (Ela está panando os filés de peixe).


What does this mean “break bread”?

In English, break bread means comer com outras pessoas as in I broke bread with him (Comi com ele).


What does this mean “bread crumb” and “bread crust”?

In English, bread crumb means miolo de pão; already bread crust means casca de pão.


The crust of the bread

A casca do pão


How do you say "caipira" in American English?


In Portuguese, caipira is a person who lives in the countryside, often in ways simple and rustic and uneducated. Some synonyms caipira are matuto, roceiro, rústico, jeca-tatu, jeca ou capiau. In English, hillbilly (plural hillbillies) means caipira as in She called John a hillbilly because of his accent and his simple clothes (Ela chamou João de caipira por causa de seu sotaque e roupas simples).


He was a shy hillbilly in love with a city girl.

Ele era um caipira tímido apaixonado por uma garota da cidade.


Other American caipiras

In the United States, caipira is not only but also called hillbilly, redneck and cracker. But, pay atention: the hillbilly é o caipira que mora nas áreas montanhosas no sudeste do país. The redneck (literalmente “pescoço vermelho”, devido ao sol) é o matuto branco, que mora no sul e não gosta de pessoas de outras raças. The redneck possui muitas ideias e crenças preconceituosas. Already the cracker (termo ofensivo) é o roceiro branco e pobre, que mora no sudeste do país.


There is a redneck looking at me.

Tem um caipira olhando para mim.


Corn Chips Cool Ranch Doritos - uses of "ranch" that give weather farm to your English


Because the bag of chips that brings the English ranch printed on the packaging, many students think that in english, ranch means rancho, a refeição servida em quartel ou presídio. Nothing to do. In English, ranch does not have any ties with food. Want to learn what it really means ranch in english? then, follow me.


In English, ranch can be noun or verb. as a noun, ranch means fazenda, estância, granja, casa da fazenda (com o pessoal que administra, mora ou trabalha na fazenda).


a) He went to work on a ranch.

(Ele foi trabalhar numa estância.)


b) They live on a cattle ranch in Texas.

(Eles vivem em uma fazenda de gado no Texas.)


As a verb, ranch means administrar, morar/trabalhar numa fazenda ou criar gado.


a) Her husband is ranching in Arizona.

(O marido dela está trabalhando numa fazenda no Arizona.)


b) I will ranch cattle in Texas.

(Vou criar gados no Texas.)



What does this mean “ranch hand”?

In English, ranch hand means peão, o trabalhador da fazenda, as in A ranch hand is a manual laborer (O peão é um trabalhador braçal).


A ranch hand needs to know how to take care of animals.

Um peão precisa saber como cuidar de animais.


Almaden Wine Sunny Days - uses of "sunny" that leave your English clearer and youthful


I bet you know what it means in english sunny but not know the meaning of the expression on the sunny side of 40. Do you know? If you do not know, learn all about sunny now. Follow me.

In English, the adjective sunny means ensolarado, radiante, claro, alegre, feliz. His comparative degree is sunnier (than) (mais ensolarado do que) and his superlative degree is (the) sunniest (o mais ensolarado).


a) It’s a sunny day.

(É um dia ensolarado.)


b) She has a very sunny temperament.

(Ela tem um temperamento bem alegre.)


What does this mean “on the sunny side of”?

In English, the term informal on the sunny side means mais jovem que.


They are on the sunny side of 40

Elas estão com menos de 40


More interesting expressions with “sunny

Sunny-side up (amer.) – ovos fritos de um só lado, as in I’d like my egg sunny-side up (Quero meu ovo frito só de um lado).

The sunny sideo lado exposto ao sol; o lado agradável

Look at the sunny side of thingsolhar as coisas pelo lado agradável

Tubes Muppets Finio significado ofensivo de “muppet” em inglês britânico


Chances are you've seen the Muppets dolls patterned children's products. But have you seen the muppet that means in English? Yet? So know this slang now. Follow me.

In informal British English, the term offensive muppet means pessoa estúpida.


Keep calm she is a muppet

Fique calmo ela é uma pessoa estúpida


Etymology of "muppet"

The term comes from the muppet the agglutination of m(arionette) + (p)uppet. In English, puppet means fantoche ou pessoa que age industriada por terceiros.